Image Credits

List of credits and sources for images used in the 1001 Inventions Exhibition.


Unit Number     Image Position  Caption & Description    Credits

E101      Centre  HOW THE ELEPHANT CLOCK TELLS THE TIME5 – Drawing of the workings of the Elephant Clock

E201      Top Right            AL-JAZARI’S ELEPHANT CLOCK – Al-Jazari’s Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices, completed in 1206, contained many sophisticated machines including the Elephant Clock, an automatic hand-washing machine and a mechanical musical band operated by cam-shaft.

E201      Bottom Right     AL-JAZARI’S ELEPHANT CLOCK – Al-Jazari’s Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices, completed in 1206, contained man sophisticated machines including the Elephant Clock, an automatic hand-washing machine and a mechanical musical band operated by cam shaft.

E201      Bottom Left       AL-JAZARI’S ELEPHANT CLOCK – Illustration of Al-Jazari    Ali Hasan Amro/

E202      Top Left              TIMES PAST – A simple vase marked with divisions that measured water flowing out of a small spout near the base, used in Egypt before 1500 BCE. The Greeks used similar devices, calling them clepsydras – ‘water thieves’.

E202      Top Right            TIMES PAST – Pre-Islamic cultures used sundials to tell the time. They also used the flow of sand or water to mark time passing.

E301      Centre  Scribe Clock – The Scribe sitting on top of this clock would turn steadily to point at the time with his pen, under the control of the water flowing inside.

E302      Centre  Powering the clock – Inventor Al-Jazari designed the shape of the water tank so that the water level drops at a constant rate to ensure uniform motion and increase accuracy.

E401      Top Left              Naturally Conditioned Homes – Front elevation of courtyard house at Kadhimiya, Baghdad, built in around 1900.

E401      Centre  Naturally Conditioned Homes – Courtyard elevation of Diwan-Khanat Al-Esterabadi, Kadhimiya, Baghdad (about 1850).

E401      Top Right            Naturally Conditioned Homes – A view from within a double-height semisubterranean room looking up towards planted area of courtyard at ground floor, and roof terrace. Built in about 1890.

E501      Bottom Right     Home Life – Illustration of Jabir Ibn Hayyan         Ali Hasan Amro/

E501      Bottom Left       Home Life – Sake (Sheikh) Dean Mahomed opened his Indian Vapour Baths on Brighton’s seafront in 1759, offeringluxurious treatments including shampooing (from theHindi word champo) and massage (from the Arabicword massa, to touch).              © By permission of the British Library

E502      Bottom Right     Meet the physicist Ibn Al-Hayham – Born in Basra, Iraq, in the year 965, Ibn al-Haytham completely changed our understanding of light and vision. He died in Cairo in around 1039.           Ali Hasan Amro/

E601      Left        A New View of Vision – Illustration of Ibn al-Haitham      Ali Hasan Amro/

E601      Right     A New View of Vision – The eye’s structure, drawn by Kamal al-Din al-Farisi in the 13th century, based on Ibn al-Haytham’s ideas.

E701      Right     Genie in a flask

E702      Top Right            More than a game – A Muslim and a Christian playing chess together, as shown in a 14th-century book on chess.

E702      Bottom Right     More Than A Game – An 18th-century chess-playing robot called ‘The Turk’, actually controlled by a skilled player inside the cabinet.

AnchorE702       Bottom Left       More Than A Game – 10th-century chess master Al-Suli wrote a book that included this game in progress. The Arabic script says ‘The black is winning and it is his turn to play’.             © Courtsey of Suleymaniye Library, Istanbul


Unit Number     Image Position  Caption &Description     Credits

S101      Right     Library manuscript – Books and knowledge were a crucial aspect of early Muslim civilisation. This 13th-century manuscript, drawn by Al-Wasiti of the celebrated book The Assemblies, written by Hariri, shows a library in Baghdad.         © Bibliotheque nationale de France, Paris

S102      Top Left              Found in Translation – Over 600 years after scholars gathered here to work on Latin versions of ancient texts, this building in Toledo is still a translation centre.      © Castilla-La Mancha University (Spain)

S102      Bottom Right     Found in Translation – In the bustling city of Toledo, men and women of many faiths once worked together to translate from Arabic into Latin the writings of ancient Greece and the original Arabic treatises. This tolerant period of history is called in Spanish La Convivencia, ‘the coexistence’.

S301      Bottom Left       Alchemy to chemistry – Illustration of Jabir ibn Hayyan, Ali Hasan Amro/

S302      Bottom Right     Textbooks and translations – Illustration of Al Kindi              Ali Hasan Amro/

S302      Bottom Left

S401      Bottom

S402      Bottom ALGEBRA AND ABSTRACT MATHS – The poet we know today as Umar al-Khayyam contributed to algebra, with an ambitious plan to find algebraic solutions to cubic equations.

S403      Bottom Right     GORGEOUS GEOMETRY – Illustration of Sinan     Ali Hasan Amro/

S501      Bottom Left       The Search for knowledge – Over a thousand years after its foundation, Al-Azhar University Mosque in Cairo is still going strong.

S501      Bottom Right     The Search for knowledge – A rare dissection lesson at Montpellier University, shown in a 14th-century French manuscript. Montpellier was a centre for the study of Muslim medical and astronomical texts from the 12th century onwards.

S503      Bottom Left       Hot topics – At Al-Qarawiyin University in Fez, Morocco, students could take courses in law, mathematics and history accompanied by training in the Qur’an. The same tradition continues today.

S503      Bottom Right     Hot topics – In ancient universities, students would gather to listen to a scholar seated on a raised chair. This elevated position reflected the status of such scholars, and is echoed in our modern term ‘the chair’ to refer to a leader or president of a meeting. © Bibliotheque nationale de France, Paris

S601      Top Right            Libraries and learning – Built in 732 in Tunis, the Zaytuna Mosque library once held a staggering collection of over 100,000 books.

S601      Bottom Right     Libraries and learning – In Toledo’s cathedral archive today you can still see about 2500 of the surviving manuscripts that scholars translated from Arabic to Latin.

S601      Bottom Left       Libraries and learning – Fatima al-Fihri   Ali Hasan Amro/

S602      Top Right            The Paper Trail – Inks in red, white and blue, with silver and gold to embellish the script, make for a dazzling effect. This first chapter of the Qur’an, written in Jali Diwani style and gilded, comes from a manuscript of the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul.

S602      Right     The Paper Trail – Scribes used reed pens up to 30 centimetres long. Each style of script required a different pen cut at a specific angle.   Mukhtar and Soraya Sanders; Inspiral Design.

S701      Bottom Left       NUMBER CRUNCHING – Astronomers in Muslim civilisation used the ancient Babylonian mathematical system that relied on base 60. This is the number 424,0008.

S704      Bottom Left       THE ZERO HEROS – Illustration of Al-Kinda           Ali Hasan Amro/

S704      Right     THE ZERO HEROS – Modern mathematics relies on the positional system developed by scholars in Muslim civilisation a thousand years ago.

S801      Bottom Left       INSPIRED LEARNING – Illustration of fatima al-Fihri              Ali Hasan Amro/

AnchorS802       Bottom Right     MEET FATIMA AL-FIHRI – Fatima al-Fihri founded the world’s first university and spent much of her fortune building it. Illustration of Fatima al-Fihri  Ali Hasan Amro/


Unit Number     Image Position  Caption & Description    Credits

M101    Top Right            WATER POWER -Men and women worked and traded on farms supplied by water from distant water-raising machines and a network of canals.       © Ali Hasan Amro/

M101    Bottom Right     WATER POWER – Al-Jazari’s double-action pump could raise water to a height of 12 metres to deliver it into the supply system. © Courtsey of Topkapi Palace Library, Istanbul

M102    Top Right            BLOWING IN THEWIND – A 14th-century work by the Syrian geographer Al-Dimashqi recorded a windmill with typical vertical vanes.   © Bibliotheque nationale de France, Paris

M102    Bottom Left       BLOWING IN THE WIND – Unlike the European design, Central Asianwindmills had vertical sails (vanes) to catchthe wind, like this ancient example in Herat,Afghanistan.

M301    Bottom Left       MONEY, MONEY, MONEY – Gold dinars, issued by Caliph Abd al-Malik in the 7th century. These were the first coins to carry Islamic inscriptions. Muhammad al-Ahmar, who founded the Kingdom of Granada, issued silver dirhams. By the 13th century, Muslim civilisation extended from Spain in the west to China in the east.     © Princess Wijdan Fawaz Al-Hashemi

M301    Bottom Right     MONEY,MONEY, MONEY – Gold dinars, issued by Caliph Abd al-Malik in the 7th century. These were the first coins tocarry Islamic inscriptions. Muhammad al-Ahmar, who founded the Kingdom of Granada, issued silver dirhams. By the 13th century, Muslim civilisation extended from Spain in the west to China in the east.     © Saudi Aramco World/PADIA (Norman MacDonald)

M302    Bottom Left       KING OFFA’SMYSTERY – Why did the English King Offa mint a coin copied from a Muslim dinar? We’ll probably never know.              ©The Trustees of The British Museum

M302    Bottom Right     KING OFFA’SMYSTERY – Illustration of the Ibn Battuta Ali Hasan Amro/

M401    Top Right            CITIESAND TRADES – Glass from Samarra in Iraq was particularly famous. This mosaic glass vessel shows its stunning design and colours        © Philip collier

M401    Bottom Right     Cities and trades -14th-century earthenware jar. This Mamluk lustre fritware was found at Trapani in Sicily             © V & A Images/Victoria and Albert Museum

M401    Bottom Left       CITES AND TRADES – Illustration of Ibn Battuta   Ali Hasan Amro/

M402    Bottom Left       GLOBALGOODS -Ancient spinning wheel (or aspool-winding machine) in Iraq             © By permission of the British Library

M402    Bottom Middle left         GLOBAL GOODS – 17th-century manuscript showingpaper-making process.  © Science Museum/Science & Society Picture Library

M402    Bottom Middle Right      GLOBAL GOODS – Dyeing cloth in Kashmir.              © Science Museum/Science & Society Picture Library

M402    Bottom Right     GLOBAL GOODS – We still see the influence of centuries-old Islamic designs in our books, wallpapers and fabrics.           © Hikmut Barutcugil of Ebristan, Istanbul, Turkey

M501    Bottom Left       TRAVELLING TRADERS – Cities did a roaring trade in ceramics, textiles,glass, carpets and many other goods.

M501    Bottom Right     TRAVELLINGTRADERS -The welcoming sight of this rest-stop or caravanserai in Konya, Turkey, would once have meant free food and shelter for travellers of all faiths and cultures.

M601    Top Right            INDUSTRIOUSEXPERIMENTS -Chemists of the Muslim world in the 8th century first produced kerosene by distilling crude oil, a process vital to modern life.

M601    Middle Right      INDUSTRIOUS EXPERIMENTS -Chemists used distillation to make stronger acids,useful in many applications.

M601    Bottom Right     INDUSTRIOUS EXPERIMENTS -Pure distillation products like rose-water wereused in drinks, perfumes and cosmetics.

M701    Top Right            LIVINGOFF THELAND- New farming methods and crops spread widelyin Muslim lands. This is a 14th-century manuscript copy of Al-Biruni’s 11th-century treatise Chronology of Ancient Nations.          © Arthur Thévenart

M701    Bottom Right     LIVINGOFF THELAND-Many farmers built impressive pigeon-towers frommud bricks to gather birds’ droppings as fertiliser.This ruined tower is near Isfahan, Iran. © Edinburgh University Library

M702    Top left A YEAR ON THE FARM – Citrus fruits spread from India to Oman, and were then planted across Iraq and Syria, according to a 10th-century account by Al-Masudi.

M702    Bottom Right     A YEAR ON THE FARM – Figs were among numerous important fruits brought to Spain by Muslims.

M801    Bottom Left       MEET AL-JAZARI – Illustration of Al-Jazari             Ali Hasan Amro/

M802    Bottom Left       TRAVEL & TRADE – Men and women of Muslim civilisation bought and sold a huge range of textiles, ceramics and glass, as this richly-coloured painting of the 13th century shows. In the foreground, a trader serves customers with fast food.             © Bibliotheque nationale de France, Paris

AnchorM802     Bottom Right     TRAVEL & TRADE – Illustration of Ib-Battuta              Ali Hasan Amro/


Unit Number     Image Position  Caption & Description    Credits

H101     Top Right            IN THE BLOOD -How does blood move about the body? UntilIbn al-Nafis uncovered the heart and lungs’ role in blood flow in the 13th century, no one knew.

H101     Bottom Right     IN THE BLOOD -The ancient view of Greek scholars like Galen wasthat the blood passed from one chamber of the heartto the other through invisible pores, rather than by going via the lungs.              © Bridgeman Art Library – Bibliotheque de la Faculte de Medecine, Paris.

H102     Bottom Left       SETTING THE STORY STRAIGHT-Illustration of Al- Zahrawi Ali Hasan Amro/

H201     Bottom Left       BROKEN BONES – The scholar Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna, wrote and taught widely on medicine, philosophy and natural sciences.

H202     Middle Left        Bone – We still treat bone fractures in a similar way to that proposed by Ibn Sina in the 11th century.

H202     Middle  Skeleton – We still treat bone fractures in a similar way to that proposed by Ibn Sina in the 11th century.

H203     Bottom Left       MEDICAL MARVEL – By the 13th century, concise Latin versions of the Canon,translated from Arabic, had been published, along with commentaries to clarify its contents. © History of Science Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries

H203     Bottom Middle MEDICAL MARVEL – Gerard of Cremona translated the Canon into Latin in the 12th century, and soon the medical communities of Europe were all using the book, like the doctors of Muslim civilisation before them.              © National Library of Medicine

H203     Bottom Right     MEDICAL MARVEL – Illustration of Al- Zahrawi    Ali Hasan Amro/

H301     Top Left              THE CUTTING EDGE – Many instruments designed by Al-Zahrawi look similar to those we use today, as this manuscript showing his surgical saws and scrapers shows.    © Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz/Art Resource

H301     Bottom Left       THE CUTTING EDGE – Many instruments designed by Al-Zahrawi look similar to those we use today, as this manuscript showing his surgical saws and scrapers shows.    ©

H303     Bottom Right     ANCIENT SURGERY – Several modern surgical tools haven’t changed much sincethe time of Al-Zahrawi.

H401     Bottom Left       GETTING YOUR JABS – Lady Mary Montagu introduced smallpox inoculationfrom the Middle East into England, writing detailed letters to her contacts about its benefits.

H402     Bottom Left       HOW IMMUNISATIONS WORK – It took time for vaccination to be accepted. Some people thought that cowpox vaccine might producestrange results, as this 1802 caricature of Edward Jenner shows   © Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

H501     Bottom Left       SEEING IS BELIEVING – Looking good: 9th-century scholars could already draw detailed diagrams of the eye, such as this drawing in the book Ten Treatises on the Eye. It is by Hunayn ibn Ishaq, a Nestorian Christian highly respected by his Muslim peers, who died in the year 877.            © Science Museum/Science & Society Picture Library

H503     Bottom Right     TREATING CATARACTS – Doctors now carry out hundreds of thousands of cataract operations every year.

H503     Bottom Left       TREATING CATARACTS – Illustration of Ibn Al-Haitham             Ali Hasan Amro/

H601     Top Right            HOSPITALS FOR ALL – Built over eleven hundred years ago, the Ibn Tulun Mosque and Hospital in Cairo had facilities for menand women, a library and an asylum.

H601     Bottom Right     HOSPITALS FOR ALL – Modern teaching hospitals are a training ground for doctors, just as they were in Muslim civilisation.

H601     Bottom Left       HOSPITALS FOR ALL – Illustration of Fatima al-Fihri              Ali Hasan Amro/

H602     Top Left              MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE – As early as the 11th century, Constantine ‘the African’ made key Arabic medical works accessible to European scholars by translating them into Latin. This 16th-century illustration recalls his lectures at the Italian medical school in Salerno.              © Dr James T Goodrich

H701     Top Right            TREATMENT OPTIONS – Today’s chemists shops offer a wide range of treatments, some of which draw on truly ancient medical knowledge.

H701     Bottom Right     TREATMENT OPTIONS – Botanical remedies: a 15th-century Persian manuscript shows herbalists tapping balsam trees.

H702     Top Left              HERBAL REMEDIES – Pharmacists busily mix their medicines in this illustration from an Arabic version of De Materia Medica, first translated in the 9th century in Baghdad from a Syriac version. The illustrations, dated 1224, are painted in the lively and appealing style and bright colours of the Baghdad School with sprightly figures in contemporary local dress.        © Werner Forman Archive/Metropolitan Museum, New York

H702     Bottom Left       HERBAL REMEDIES -In the 11th century, Herbal treatments have historical roots in Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India and Muslim lands.

AnchorH801      Middle Left        HEALTH & WELFARE – Surgery was surprisingly ambitious in Muslim civilisation, as this 15th-century manuscript shows.         © Millet Library, Istanbul


Unit Number     Image Position  Caption & Description    Credits

T201      Bottom Right     THROUGH THE ROSEWINDOW – Some experts believe European rose windows originated with the rosette and octagonal windows of the 8th-century Khirbat al-Mafjar Palace in Jordan. Illustration of Sinan.             Ali Hasan Amro/

T203      Centre  The rose window in Durham Cathedral   © Durham Cathedral

T301      Bottom Left       BUILDINGS& TOWNS -Master-architect Sinan built the Suleymaniye Mosquein Istanbul between 1550 and 1557. He designedthe interior with a filter room to cleanse the air ofcandle- and lamp-smoke – collecting the soot forink-making. Sinan developed new constructionmethods to resist earthquakes in vulnerable towns. He and other Ottoman architects helped keep theirbuildings cobweb-free by incorporating ostrich eggsinto the chandeliers, intended to repel spiders andother insects.            © Richard Seaman

T302      Bottom Right     MEET SINANTHE ARCHITECT –Master-architect Sinan constructed many elegantbuildings during the 16th century.Illustration of Sinan        Ali Hasan Amro/

T401      Top Right            OLD TOWN PLANNING – In this charming 16th-century town plan of Diyarbakir in southern modern-day Turkey, neighbourhoodscluster around local mosques, while the governor’s palace is shown in a separate walled area.         © University Library, Istanbul

T402      Top Left              SPA TREATMENT – Public bath-houses or hammams would be tiled decoratively and used by men and women at different times of day.   © Courtsey of Topkapi Palace Library, Istanbul

T402      Bottom Left       SPA TREATMENT – y the 14th century, bath-houses in Baghdad had luxurious marble basins with hot and cold wateron tap, according to the traveller Ibn Battuta. Illustration of Ibn Battuta Ali Hasan Amro/

T602      Bottom Left       WATER FEATURES -Fountains and garden water features became very popular in palaces and mosques across the Muslim world.

T701      Top Right            THE RISEOFDOMES – Domes form part of the fairytale appearance of the SeaCathedral in Kronstadt, near St Petersburg, built in 1913.The Kremlin in Moscow is also topped with domes.

T701      Bottom Right     THE RISE OF DOMES -Brighton’s Royal Pavilion, designed by John Nashin 1815 for the Prince Regent, features the bulbousonion domes that had been popular throughout theMughal Empire in India.

T702      Top Left              SPREADINGNEWIDEAS – The church spires and towers that seem so typicallyEnglish didn’t appear in the UK at all before 1200.European traders probably brought the idea back fromAlgeria, where the ancient tower of the Fort (Qal’a) ofBeni Hammad still stands today, or were inspired by the minarets of mosques across Muslim lands.

T702      Bottom Left       SPREADING NEW IDEAS – Under the reign of the Norman King Roger II, inthe first half of the 12th century, Muslim craftsmen designed and decorated the Palatine Chapel in Palermo, Sicily.    © Mashreq Maghreb

T801      Top Right            HEAVENSCENT- A team of gardeners tends a plot filled with fruitand flowers under the instruction of the MughalSultan Babur, in this 17th-century manuscriptcalled the Baburnama.     © V & A Images/Victoria and Albert Museum

T801      Bottom Right     HEAVENSCENT – Gardens inspired a special kind of Arabic poetry in Muslim civilisation. Called rawdiya, it conjured up images of the heavenly gardens of paradise. Illustration of Sinan              Ali Hasan Amro/

T802      Top Left              GLASSHOUSESAND KIOSKS – The Ottoman Sultan Murad III sits with his sons inthis typical open-sided kiosk, surrounded by a lushwalled garden. This miniature painting is from the16th century.         © Courtesy of Topkapi Palace Library , Istanbul

AnchorT802       Bottom Right     GLASSHOUSES AND KIOSKS – A famous kiosk built in 1473 at the TopkapiPalace in Istanbul was topped with a dome, and had two storeys to give better views of the gardens. Illustration of Sinan              Ali Hasan Amro/


Unit Number     Image Position  Caption & Description    Credits

W101    Bottom Left       MAP-MAKING-Drawn by Piri Re’is, this is the oldest-survivingdetailed map showing the Americas. To make it,he used Arab and Portuguese maps, along withone of Christopher Columbus’s own maps, now lost. © Courtesy of Topkapi Palace Library , Istanbul

W101    Bottom Right     MAP-MAKING – Some of the best eyewitness accounts of the medieval world came from Muslim geographersand travellers who kept detailed diaries as they journeyed. Illustration of Zheng He         Ali Hasan Amro/

W103    Bottom Left       AL-IDRISI’S WORLD MAP – Al-Idrisi made many maps while working for the King of Sicily in the 1100s, including this world map that includes India, Arabia, Asia, the Mediterranean, Europe and northern Africa. Bodleian Library (MS Pocoke)

W105    Centre  World/Rotating Map      Bodleian Library (MS Pocoke)

W201    Top Right            ALL AROUND THE WORLD -Today we know the Earth is a slightlyflattened sphere, spinning on its axisand orbiting the Sun.              This credit doesn’t exist in the book i.e. p238

W201    Bottom Right     ALL AROUND THE WORLD – Scholars once used sophisticated astrolabes to help assess height and distance. Measuring and charting the Earth’s features was a key aim of mathematical geography. © National Maritime Museum, London

W301    Top Right            SEA AND SKY – Scholar Al-Biruni spent years in India, where, among other investigations, he studied tidesin Somnath, a town on the Arabian Sea.

W301    Bottom Right     SEA AND SKY – Al-Kindi studied music as part of the mathematical sciences and helped to improve the instrument called the lute. He also developed coded writing, and invented decoding methods, such as frequency analysis, similar to those used centuries later in more complex forms during the Second World War in German Enigma machines. Illustration of Al Kindi

W302    Top Left              LIGHT WORK -We see a rainbow when sunlight is split into its component colours by raindrops.

W302    Bottom Left       LIGHT WORK – The story goes that after Ibn al-Haytham declinedto perform an impossible task for the ruling caliphin Egypt, he escaped punishment by pretendingto be mad. Kept under house arrest, he freelycontinued his investigations. Illustration of Al-Kindi          Ali Hasan Amro/

W401    Top Right            EARTH SCIENCE – Gems and precious stones fascinated the ancient Egyptians, Persians, Indians, Chinese and Greeks.

W401    Bottom Right     EARTH SCIENCE – Al-Biruni worked as the chief scholar to Mahmud of Ghazna, ruler of northern India. He wrote a famous book, Chronicles of India, about the country’s geology and geography, correctly describing how the basin of the River Ganges must have formed through sedimentation. © Hussein Gouda

W402    Top Left              EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT -Ibn Hazm told his readers that the stars have no mind or soul, and can’t tell the future, but that the Sun’s heat has a positive physical effect on Earth             © Princess Wijdan Fawaz Al – Hashemi

W402    Bottom Left       EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT – In his writings, Ibn Sina proposed new ideas in geology and meteorology, including how mountains form, and where clouds come from.  © Saudi Aramco World/PADIA (Michael Winn)

W601    Middle Left        ADMIRAL OF THE FLEET – A celebrated figure in China, the Muslim admiralZheng He had a fleet whose largest ships were five times bigger than those of Columbus, who sailed decades later. Illustration of Zheng He. Ali Hasan Amro/

W601    Bottom Right     ADMIRAL OF THE FLEET – Historical accounts record that Zheng He and his fleets used this navigation chart as they recorded their routes on voyage.

W701    Top Left              WORLD VIEW – In the 15th century, Chinese Muslim Zheng He brought back live giraffes from an epic voyage to east Africa.

WORLD VIEW -… that travellers’ stories of sailors being chased by a giant bird on a tropical island helped inspire classicbooks like the One Thousand and One Nights? Illustration of Al – Kindi              Ali Hasan Amro/

W702    Top Right            MEET ABBAS IBN FIRNAS – Illustration of Abbas Ibn Firnas   Ali Hasan Amro/

W702    Bottom Left       MEET ABBAS IBN FIRNAS – Artistic impression of Abbas ibn Firnas and his successful 9th-century flight.     Ali Hasan Amro/

W801    Top Right            TRIP OF A LIFETIME – Travellers might join up into caravans while en route to Mecca on pilgrimage, as is shown in this 13th-centurymanuscript of the classical Arabic work of literature Maqamat al-Hariri.   © Bibliothèque Nationale de France

W801    Bottom Right     TRIP OF A LIFETIME – A modern-day camel caravan crossing the desert.        © Saudi Aramco World/PADIA (Khalil Abou El-Nasr)

W802    Top Left              INCREDIBLE JOURNEY – On his epic journey in which he visited and lived in 40 modern-day countries, Ibn Battuta made the pilgrimage to Mecca four times.        © Saudi Aramco World/PADIA (Khalil Abou El-Nasr)

W802    Bottom Left       INCREDIBLE JOURNEY – Ibn Battuta spent 29 years travelling and recording his experiences – returning home to find many family members had been lost in the meantime to the plague. Illustration of Ibn Battuta.   Ali Hasan Amro/



Unit Number     Image Position  Caption & Description    Credits

U101     Top Right            STAR GAZING – Like Gemini, the ancient names of many constellations recall Babylonian and Greek legends, and many of the stars themselves have Arabic names.      Courtesy of Suleymaniye Library, Istanbul

U101     Bottom Left       STAR GAZING – in his book, Al-Sufi included two drawings of each constellation, one as seen from Earth and another as if seen from outside the sphere of the heavens, with stars and constellations set on it. Illustration of Ijiya Al – Astrulabi            Ali Hasan Amro/

U102     Top Left              STAR SIGNS – The constellation Perseus contains the famous star Algol, from the Arabic al-Ghul, which means ‘the ghoul’ or ‘the demon star’.            Courtesy of Suleymaniye Library, Istanbul

U102     Bottom Left       STAR SIGNS – The 10th-century Persian astronomer Al-Sufi was the first astronomer to mention the Andromeda galaxy, calling it the ‘little cloud’. Illustration of Ijiya al – Astrulabi          Ali Hasan Amro/

U201     Bottom Left       UNIVERSAL TRUTHS – The 16th-century astronomer Taqi al-Din installed huge versions of tools, like this great sextant, to increase the accuracy of measurements made in his observatory in Istanbul.        © University Library, Istanbul

U202     Bottom Right     MEET THE ASTROLABE -MAKER – AL-IJLIYA – ASTRULABI. Illustration of jiya al – Astrulabi        Ali Hasan Amro/

U301     Top Right            SEEING STARS – From the 9th-century, astronomers of the Muslim world had large observatories from which they could study the stars.

U301     Bottom Right     SEEING STARS – Chinese records inform us that an astronomer called Jamal al-Din, who was linked to the 13th-century Maragha Observatory, visited the Imperial court in Beijing in 1267 and brought with him several astronomical instruments. He became famous in China and was known as Cha-ma-lu-ting. Illustration of Zheng He              Ali Hasan Amro/

U302     Top Left              FROM EASTTO WEST – In the 16th century, Nicolaus Copernicus first proposed the Sun-centred solar system, replacing the idea that the Earth was at the centre of the universe. He drew on a rich heritage of astronomical ideas and data, including writings by Al-Battani and Ibn al-Shatir, along with instruments developed in observatories in Muslim lands.   © Anna Pietrzak; Nicholaus Copernicus Museum

U302     Bottom Left       FROM EASTTO WEST – Al-Battani, known in the West as Albategnius, wrote influential astronomical works in the 10th century and measured the solar year as being 365 days, 5 hours, 46 minutes and 24 seconds long. Illustration of Ijiya Al – Astrulabi    Ali Hasan Amro/

U401     Bottom Left       THE LUNAR CALENDAR – The phases of the Moon, shown here in a composite photograph, govern the Muslim hijri calendar.

U401     Bottom Right     THE LUNAR CALENDAR – Many of the Moon’s topographic features are named after famous astronomers of Muslim civilisation, including a mountainous ring called Azophi after Al-Sufi and an impact crater called Albategnius after Al-Battani. Illustration of Ijiya Al – Astrulabi            Ali Hasan Amro/

U403     Bottom Left       MOON MATHS -The Moon has a circular plain called Thebit after the 9th-century astronomer Thabit ibn Qurra who wrote scientific books and edited Arabic translations of Greek and Syriac works. Illustration of Al – kindi. Ali Hasan Amro/

U403     Bottom Right     MOON MATHS – Muslim astronomers developed new mathematical ways to forecast the Moon’s phases accurately. This painting comes from a 16th-century Persianmanuscript called Wonders of Creation by Al-Qazwini. © By Permission of the British Library

U201     Right     BLAST OFF – Only twelve people have walked on the Moon, our nearest neighbour in space.

U602     Top Left              DREAMSOF FLIGHT- In the Book of Kings, poet Al-Firdawsi describes the tale of a king who tried to invade heaven on a flying throne

U602     Bottom Left       DREAMSOF FLIGHT- Artistic impression of Abbas ibn Firnas and his successful 9th-century flight.   Ali Hasan Amro/

U701     Top Right            MAGIC GADGETS – The 12th-century scholar Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi invented the linear astrolabe, sometimes called the ‘Staff of Al-Tusi’, which was a simple wooden rod with graduated markings but without sights. It is shown here in a famous painting of Taqi al-Din’s 16th-century observatory.     © University Library, Istanbul

U701     Bottom Right     MAGIC GADGETS – Astrolabes help people navigate on land, using stars as reference points. According to the 10th-century astronomer Al-Sufi, an astrolabe could perform a thousand tasks useful in astronomy, astrology, navigation and surveying. © Saudi Aramco World/PADIA (Robert Azzi)

U701     Bottom Right     MAGIC GADGETS – Spherical astrolabes were described in the Muslim world by 9th-century astronomer Al-Nayrizi, but they weren’t common as they were harder to make and use. Illustration of Ijiya Al – Astrulabi.          Ali Hasan Amro/

U702     Right     A Collection Of Astrolabes

U801     Right     PRECISE MEASUREMENTS – The 15th-century Ulugh Beg Observatory in Uzbekistan had a sextant with a radius of over 40 metres – the world’s largest at the time – to help make accurate measurements of the altitude of stars.       © Aga Khan Visual Archive, M.I.T (Hatice Yazar 1990)

U802     Top Left              STARRY SPHERES – A tiny model of the Earth sits at the centre of this demonstration armillary sphere, shown in an engraving of 1732.    © Courtesy of Suleymaniye Library, Istanbul

U802     Bottom Left       STARRY SPHERES – Astronomers used observational armillary spheres to help make astronomical charts.           © University Library, Istanbul