Join Our Community


Newest Articles

1001 Inventions launches exhibition in Riyadh

Award-winning production arrives in the Saudi capital

World-premier science show uncovering Muslim Civilisation legacy in Brazil

Dutch Premiere for Blockbuster 1001 Inventions

H.E Sultan Al Qasimi launched one of the biggest ever 1001 Inventions exhibitions.

1001 Inventions welcomes 450,000 visitors in Jeddah

Award-winning exhibition enjoys record-breaking 4 weeks

Award-winning production arrives in the historic city

Official Launch by Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia

HRH Prince Carl Philip of Sweden officially launched the 1001 Inventions exhibition

Scandinavian debut for award-winning show

1001 Inventions to launch in Karlstad, Sweden

Pusat Sains Negara

Asian debut for award-winning show


Random Image

Academic References

The material used in 1001 inventions was thoroughly researched and academically checked against numerous reputable works whether books, journal articles or research papers. The 1001 Inventions book provided a short list of selected readings which the reader can refer to for further information. The full comprehensive list of references, however, was not published to avoid complicating things for the reader as the book text was designed for the general public and not for academics or specialists. In order to satisfy the concerns and critics of our respectable readers we produced this list separately which we put at your disposal below.

Go to references for:

Home Zone

School Zone

Market Zone

Hospital Zone

Town Zone 

World Zone

Universe Zone

Top of the Page

HOME ZONE

Coffee

  • Abd-al-Qadir ibn Muhammed al-Ansari al-Jaziri al-Hanbali (ca. 1558): 'Umdat al-Safwa fi hill al-qahwa, partly edited in A.I.S. De Sacy, Chrestomathie arabe, Paris, 3 vols., 2nd edition, 1826. Al-Jaziri's manuscript work is of considerable interest with regards to the history of coffee in Europe as well. A copy reached the French royal library, where it was translated in part by Antoine Galland as De l'origine et du progrès du Café (Paris, 1699; recently reissued (Paris: Editions La Bibliothèque, 1992). See also Dufour, Traitez nouveaux et curieux du café, du thé et du chocolat (Lyon, 1684).

  • ‘Abd al-Kadir b Shaykh b al-‘Aydarus: Safwat al-Safwa fi bayan hukm al-kahwa. Berlin, Ahlwardt, Verzeichnis, MS 5479.

  • Hattox, R. S. 1988: Coffee and Coffeehouses: The Origins of a Social Beverage in the Medieval Near East. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press.

  • Akyazici Özkoçak, Selma 2007: "Coffehouses: Rethinking the Public and Private in Early Modern Istanbul," Journal of Urban History, vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 965-986. Read online here.

  • Al-Arnaout, Muhammad M. 2000: Mudâkhalât 'arabiya balqâniya fî al-târikh al-wasît wa-'l-hadîth [Arabian and Balkanic connections in medieval and modern history], Damascus: Publications of the Union of Arab Writers; see chapter 2: Min al-tarîkh al-thaqâfî li-l-qahwa min al-Yaman ilâ al-Busna [About the cultural history of coffee from Yemen to Bosnia], online version here.

  • Birsel, Salâh 1975: Kahveler kitab. Istanbul: Koza Yayınları, (Olaylar-belgeler-anılar ; 8).

  • Hansen, Eric 1997: Yemen's Well-Travelled Bean, Saudi Aramco World, September/October, pp. 2-9.

  • Isin, Ekrem 2001: “A Social History of Coffee and Coffeehouses,” Selahattin Özpalabiyiklar (ed.), Coffee, Pleasures Hidden in a Bean. Istanbul: Yapi Kredi Yayinlari.

  • Kafadar, Cemal 2002: A History of Coffee, The XIIIth Congress of the International Economic History Association (IEHA), Buenos Aires, 22-26 July 2002, Session 64: "Commodities: understanding the global economy through the history of things, 1000-2000 CE" (see Introduction to session 64 by Sven Beckert and Cemal Kafadar).

  • Weinberg, Bennett Alan; Bealer, Bonnie K. 2002: The World of Caffeine: The Science and Culture of the World's Most Popular Drug. London: Routledge.

  • Willis, John E. Jr. 1993: "European Consumption and Asian Production", Consumption and the World of Goods, edited by John Brewer and Roy Porter, Routledge, London, 133-147.

  • Yaşar, Ahmet 2003: The Coffeehouses in Early Modern Istanbul: Public Space, Sociability and Surveillance. Thesis submitted to the Institute for Graduate Studies in Social Sciences in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History. Istanbul: Boğaziçi University.

Clocks

  • Al-Hassan, Ahmad Y. & Hill, Donald R. 1986: Islamic Technology. Cambridge/Paris: Cambridge University Press and Unesco.
     
  • Al-Hassani, Salim 2001: Al-Jazari: The Mechanical Genius.
     
  • Al-Hassani, Salim 2004 : The Machines of Al-Jazari and Taqi al-Din.
     
  • Al-Jazari (ca. 1206): Al-Jami’ bayn al-’Ilm al-Nafi’ fi Sina’at al-Hiyal, or A Compendium on the Theory and Practice of the Mechanical Arts known also as Kitab fi Ma’rifat al-Hiyal al-Handasiya (The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices). Istanbul, Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya, MS 3606. The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York has a page of this book entitled Kitab fi ma’rifat al-hiyal al-handasiyya. Written in Syria and dated 1315, it is from the Mamluk period. The original book was completed in Diyar Bakr (in modern day Turkey) in 1206 CE. It contains descriptions and illustrations of clocks, fountains, machines for raising water, pumps, and various other devices.
     
  • Al-Jazari 1979: Al-Jami' bayna al-'ilm wa-'l-'amal al-nafi' fi sina'at al-hiyal (A Compendium on the Theory and Practice of the Mechanical Arts) by Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (1206), edited by Ahmad Y.Al-Hassan. Aleppo: Publications of the Institute for the History of Arabic Sciences, University of Aleppo.
     
  • Al-Jazari 2001: Texts and Studies. Collected and reprinted by Fuat Sezgin in collaboration with Farid Benfeghoul, Carl Ehrig-Eggert, Eckhard Neubauer. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften (Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science) at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University.
     
  • Farré Olivé, Eduard 1997: De Mensura Temporis, Arte y Hora, n. 123-H6, March-April 1997, pp. 8-16 (2ª parte) "Arte y Hora" n. 127-H10, January-February 1998, pp. 10-17.
     
  • Farré Olivé, Eduard 1998: La clepsidra de las Gacelas del manuscrito de relojes de Al-Muradi. Arte y Hora, n. 128-H11, Mar-Abr, 1998, pp. 10-18.
     
  • FSTC Researh Team 2008: 800 Years Later: In Memory of Al-Jazari, A Genius Mechanical Engineer.
     
  • FSTC Research Team 2008: Taqī al-Dīn Ibn Ma'rūf: A Special Section.
     
  • Hill, Donald R. 1974: The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices. An annotated translation of al-Jazarī's Treatise. Dordrecht: Reidel. English translation of the major treatise of al-Jazarī.
     
  • Hill, Donald R. 1976: On the Construction of Water Clocks. Kitab Arshimidas fi ‘amal al-binkamat. London: Turner & Devereaux.
     
  • Hill, D. R. 1981: Arabic Water-Clocks. Aleppo: Institute for the History of Arabic Science.
     
  • Hill, D. R. 1987: "Islamic Fine Technology and its Influence on the Development of European Horology." Al-Abhath (Beirut: American University of Beirut) vol. 35, pp. 8-28.
     
  • Ridhwān b. Muhammad al-Sā'ātī 1981: 'Ilm al-Sā'āt wa 'l-'Amal bihā, edited by Muhammad Ahmad Dahmān. Damascus: Maktab al-dirāsāt al-islāmiyya.
     
  • Taqi al-Din: Al-Kawakib al-durriyya fi al-binqamat al-dawriyya, or Pearl Stars on Cyclic Water Clocks. Cairo, Dar al-Kutub, MS Miqat 557/1.
     
  • Taqi al-Din: Al-Alat al-rasadiya li-Zij al-shahinshahiyya. Library of the Topkapi Palace Museum, MS Hazine 452.
     
  • Taqi al-Din: Rayhanat al-ruh fi rasm al-sa’at ‘ala mustawa ’l-sutuh. Vatican Library, MS 1424.
     
  • Tekeli, Sevim 1966: The Clocks in the Ottoman Empire in the 16th Century and Taqi al-Din’s ‘The Brightest Stars for the Construction of the Mechanical Clocks’. Ankara (in Turkish)
     
  • Wiedemann, Eilhard, and Hauser, Fritz 1915: Uber die Uhren im Bereich der islamischen Kultur. Halle: Karra.

Chess

  • Ahmad ibn Yahya Ibn abi Hajla al-Tilimsani, Al-Hanbali: Kitab Unmudhaj al-qital fi naql al-‘awal, or The Book of the Examples of Warfare in the Game of Chess. Electronic edition here (on www.alwaraq.com).
     
  • Abu Zakaria b. Ibrahim al-Hakim 2012: Nuzhat arbab al-'uqul fi al-shatranj al-manqul, edited by Mu’jib al-‘Adwani. Beirut: Al-Mu’assasa al-‘arabiyali-‘l-dirasat wa-‘l-nashr.
     
  • Al-Suli: Kitab al-shatranj, or Muntahab Kitab al-shatranj (Book of Chess or Selections from the Book of Chess). Suleymaniye Library, Lala Ismail 560. As-Suli was the author of Kitab Ash-Shatranj (Book of Chess). This was the first scientific book ever written on chess strategy. It contained information on common chess openings, middle game problems, and annotated endgames. It also contained the first known description of the knight’s tour problem, studied in Yakov Damsky 2005: The Book of Chess Records, Batsford, pp. 166-167.
     
  • Al-Suli 1986: Kitab al-shatranj. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.
     
  • Ibn abi Hajla al-Tilimsani 2012: Kitab Unmudhaj al-qital fi naql al-‘awal, edited by Mu’jib al-‘Adwani. Beirut: Al-Mu’assasa al-‘arabiyali-‘l-dirasat wa-‘l-nashr.
     
  • Leder, S. 2008: "Al-Suli, Abu Bakr Muhammad." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Leiden: Brill.
     
  • Murray, H. J. R. 1985: A History of Chess. London: Oxford University Press, 1913; reprinted Northampton, MA: Benjamin Press.

Cleanliness

  • Al-Kindi: Kitab Kimiya’ al-‘itr wa’t-tas’idat (Book of the Chemistry of Perfume and Distillations). German translation in K. Garbers 1948: Buch uber die Chemie des Parfums und die Distillationen, Leipzig.

  • Al-Zahrawi: Kitab al-Tasrif Liman ‘Ajaz ‘an al-Ta’lif or Al-Tasrif (The disposal of medical knowledge to he who is not able to get it by himself). Istanbul, Suleymaniye Library, MS Hacıbesir 502 and Rabat, Al-Khizana al-Hasaniyya, MS 134.

  • Al-Zahrawi 1986: Kitab al-Tasrif Liman ‘Ajaz ‘an al-Ta’lif. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften. Publication of the manuscript no 502, Bashir Agha Collection, Suleymaniye Library, Istanbul.

  • Al-Zahrawi 1996: Texts and Studies. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften

Mechanics, Machines, Trick Devices

  • Abattouy, Mohammed 1997: Arabic Tradition of Mechanics and Engineering: General Survey and Prospects for Future Research. Berlin: Max Planck Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Preprint n° 76.
     
  • Abattouy, M. 1999: "The Arabic Tradition of Mechanics: Textual and Historical Characterization." Review of the Faculty of Letters and Humanities in Fez (Fez), vol. 12, pp. 75-109.
     
  • Abattouy, M. 2008: Bibliography on Taqi Al-Din.
     
  • Abū Sadīra, Taha al-Sayid, 1991: Al-hiraf wa 'l-sina'at fi misr al-islamiya mundhu al-fath al-'arabi hata nihayat al-'asr al-fatimi. Cairo: The Egyptian General Book Organization.
     
  • Al-Hassan, Ahmad Y. et al. (editors) 2002: Science and Technology in Islam, vol. 4 of The Different Aspects of Islamic Culture. Paris: UNESCO.
     
  • Al-Hassan, A. Y.: Online articles on History of Science and Technology in Islam:

Al-Jazari and the History of the Water Clock.
- Transfer of Islamic Technology to the West: Part 1: Avenues of Technology Transfers; Part 2: Transfer of Islamic Engineering; Part 3: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries.
Taqi al-Din and the First Steam Turbine.
The Origin of the Suction Pump.
The Crank-Connecting Rod System in a Continuously Rotating Machine.
Flywheel Effect for a Saqiya.
 

  • Al-Hassan, A. Y., and Hill, Donald R. 1986: Islamic Technology. An Illustrated History. Paris/Cambridge: UNESCO/ Cambridge University Press.
     
  • Banu Musa [Brothers]: Kitab al-hiyal: The Book of Ingenious Mechanical Devices. Vatican Library, MS 317/1; Cairo, Dar al-Kutub, MS Taymur Sina’a 69. This manuscript, which was written in Baghdad about 830 CE, describes one hundred pieces of technical equipment.
  • Banu Musa 1981: Kitab al-hiyal, edited by A. Y. Al-Hassan. Aleppo: Institute for the History of Arabic Science. The standard critical edition of the Arabic text of Banu Musa’s treatise in mechanics.
     

  • Al-Hassani, Salim 2001: Al-Jazari: The Mechanical Genius.
     
  • Al-Hassani, Salim 2004 : The Machines of Al-Jazari and Taqi al-Din.
     
  • Al-Hassani, S. 2008: The Self Changing Fountain of Banu Musa bin Shakir.
     
  • Al-Hassani, S. 2008: The Astronomical Clock of Taqi Al-Din: Virtual Reconstruction.
     
  • Al-Hassani, S., and Ong Pang Kiat, Colin 2008: Al-Jazari's Third Water-Raising Device: Analysis of its Mathematical and Mechanical Principles.
     
  • Al-Hassani, S. and Al-Lawati, M.A. 2008: The Six-Cylinder Water Pump of Taqi al-Din: Its Mathematics, Operation and Virtual Design.
     
  • Al-Hassani, S., and Abattouy, M. 2008: "La pompe hydraulique d'al-Jazarī (début du XIIIe siècle)". In: Les découvertes en pays d'Islam, edited by Ahmed Djebbar. Paris: Editions Le Pommier, pp. 130-135.
     
  • Al-Jazari 1979: Al-Jami’ bayna al-ilm wa-al-amal al-naf fi sinaat al-hiyal, or The Book of Ingenious Devices. Aleppo: Institute for the History of Arabic Science. The standard edition of the Arabic text of Al-Jazari’s treatise.
     
  • Bir, Atilla 1990: Kitab al-hiyal of Banu Musa bin Shakir Interpreted in the Sense of Modern System and Control Engineering.. Preface and edition by Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu (Studies and Sources on the History of Science, 4). Istanbul: Research Centre for Islamic History, Art, and Culture (IRCICA).
     
  • Bir, Atilla, and Kacar, Mustafa, 2006: Pioneers of Automatic Control Systems.
     
  • Hill, Donald R. 1974: The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices. An annotated translation of al-Jazari's Treatise. Dordrecht: Reidel.
     
  • Hill, D. R. 1993: Islamic Science and Engineering. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Arabic translation (Kuwait, 2004).
     
  • Hill, D.R. 1993: "Science and Technology in Ninth-Century Baghdad." In: Science in Western and Eastern Civilization in Carolingian Times. Edited by P. L. Butzer and D. Lohrmann. Bâle: Birkhäuser Verlag, pp. 486-502.
     
  • Hill, D.R. 1996: "Engineering." In: Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, edited by R. Rashed. London: Routledge, vol. III, pp. 751-795.
     
  • Hill, D.R. 1998: Studies in Medieval Islamic Technology: From Philo to al-Jazarī−From Alexandria to Diyār Bakr. Edited by David A. King. (Variorum Collected Studies Series). Aldershot, Eng. /Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate.
     
  • Hill, D.R., and Squatriti, P. 1998: "A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times." Speculum vol. 73: pp. 11-43.
     
  • Jaraki, Abdel Aziz, 2007: When Ridhwan al-Sa’ati Anteceded Big Ben by More than Six Centuries.
     
  • Mansour, Mohamed 2002: A Review of Early Muslim Control Engineering.
     
  • Manzanares Japon, José Luis 2002 : "La ingenieria civil en al-Andalus." In: La herencia arabe en la agricultura y el bienestar de Occidente. Valencia: Universidad politécnica de Valencia, pp. 349-369.
     
  • Taqi Al-Din, Sublime Methods of Spiritual Machines, in A. Y. Al-Hasan 1976: Taqī al-Dīn wa-'l-handasa al mīkanīkiya al-‛arabiya. Ma‛a kitāb Al-Turuq al-Saniya fī 'l-ālāt al-rūhāniya min al-qarn al-sādis ‛ashar [Taqī al-Dīn and Arabic Mechanical Engineering. With the book The Sublime Methods in Pneumatic Machines from the sixteenth century]. Aleppo: Institute for the History of Arabic Science.

Vision and Cameras

  • El-Bizri, Nader 2011: Ibn al-Haytham: An Introduction.

  • Ibn al-Haytham: Kitab al-Manazir, or Book of Optics, known in Latin as De aspectibus, or Perspective. Suleymaniye Library, MS Ayasofya 2448.

  • Ibn al-Haytham [Alhacen] 1972: Opticae Thesaurus Alhazeni Arabis libri septem, nunc primum editi. Eiusdem liber de crepusculis et nubium ascensionibus. Item Vitellionis Thuringopoloni libri X. Omnes instaurati, figuris illustrati et aucti, adiectis etiam in Alhazenum commentariis a Federico Risnero. Edited by David C. Lindberg. New-York/London: Johnson Reprint, 1972. Reprint of F. Risner, Opticae theasaurus. Alhazeni arabis libri septem, nun primum editi. Eiusdem liber De crepusculis et nubium ascensionibus (Basel, 1572).

  • Ibn al-Haytham 1983: Kitab al-Manazir, Sabra A. I. (editor), books I-III. Kuwait: The Cultural Council.

  • Ibn al-Haytham 1989: The Optics of Ibn al-Haytham. Books I-III: On Direct Vision. English Translation with Introduction, Commentary, Arabic-Latin Glossaries and Concordance by A. I Sabra, 2 vols. London: The Warburg Institute/University of London, “Studies of the Warburg Institute”, vol. 40.

  • Ibn al-Haytham 2002: Kitab al-Manazir, books IV-V. Edited by A. I. Sabra, Kuwait: The Cultural Council, , 2 vols.

  • Kamal al-Din al-Farisi: Tanqih al-Manazir li-dhawi’l-absar wa’l-Basa’ir. Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya 2598.

  • Kheirandish, Elaheh 1999: The Arabic Version of Euclid's Optics: Kitab Uqlidis fi ikhtilaf al-manazir. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

  • Kheirandish, Elaheh 2001: "Optics: Highlights from Islamic Lands." The Different Aspects of Islamic Culture. Vol. IV: Science and Technology in Islam, part 1. Paris: UNESCO, pp. 337-357.

  • Lindberg, David C. 1976: Theories of Vision from Al-Kindi to Kepler. Chicago/ London: University of Chicago Press. Réimpression 1996.

  • Megri, Kheira 1999: L'Optique de Kamal al-Din al-Farisi. Villeneuve-d'Ascq: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion.

  • Rashed, Roshdi 1993: Géométrie et dioptrique au Xème siècle: Ibn Sahl, al-Quhi et Ibn al-Haytham. Texte arabe inédit établi, traduit et commenté par Roshdi Rashed. Paris: Les Belles Lettres. 

  • Schramm, Matthias 1959: “Zur Entwicklung der physiologischen Optik in der arabischen Literatur." Sudhoffs Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften vol. 43: pp. 289-316.

  • Sezgin, Fuat et al. (eds.) 2001: Optics. Texts and Studies. Collected and reprinted by F. Sezgin et al. 3 vols. (Natural Sciences in Islam, 32-34). Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften, “Natural Sciences in Islam”, vol. 32

  • Smith, A. M. 2001: Alhacen's Theory of Visual Perception: A Critical Edition, with English Translation and Commentary of the First Three Books of Alhacen's De Aspectibus, the Medieval Latin Version of Ibn al-Haytham's Kitab al-Manazir. 2 vols. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.

  • Simon, Gérard : 1992 : "L'Optique d'Ibn al Haytham et la tradition ptoléméenne", Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, vol. 2, pp. 203-235.

Sound System

  • Al-Farabi: Kitab al-Musiqi al-Kabir, or The Great Book of Music. Istanbul, Koprulu Library, MS 953.
     
  • Al-Farabi 1998: Kitab al-Musiqi al-Kabir, edited by Eckhard Neubauer. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.
     
  • Al-Urmawi, Safi al-Din al-Baghdadi: Kitab al-Adwar. The Vatican Library, MS 319/3.
     
  • Arslan, Fazli Safi al-Din al-Urmawi and the Theory of Music (Full Article in PDF).
     
  • Chabrier, J.-C. 1996: "Musical Science"; in Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science. Edited by Roshdi Rashed with the collaboration of Régis Morelon. London/New York: Routledge, 3 vols.; vol. 2, pp. 242-272.
     
  • Farmer, Henry George 1997: Studies in Oriental Music. Edited by Eckhard Neubauer. 2 vols. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften. Reprint of publications published between 1925 and 1969; vol. I: History and Theory; vol. II: Instruments and Military Music.
     
  • Maalouf, Shireen 2002: History of Arabic Music Theory: Change and Continuity in the Tone Systems, Genres, and Scales. Kaslik, Lebanon: Université Saint-Esprit.
     
  • Neubauer, Eckhard 1998: Arabische Musiktheorie von den Anfangen bis zum 6./12. Jahrhundert. Studien, Ubersetzungen und Texte in Faksimile. (The Science of Music in Islam. 3). Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.
     
  • Shiloah, Amnon 1979: The Theory of Music in Arabic Writings (c. 900- 1900). Descriptive catalogue of Manuscripts in Libraries of Europe and the USA. München: Henle.
     
  • Shiloah, Amnon 1995: Music in the World of Islam. A Socio-Cultural Study. Detroit: Wayne State University.
     
  • Touma, Habib Hassan 1996: The Music of the Arabs, translated by Laurie Schwartz. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press.

Carpets

  • Aslanapa, Oktay (editor) 1988: One Thousand Years of Turkish Carpets. Istanbul: Eren.

  • Blair, S. and Bloom J. 2000,“ Islamic Carpets”, Islam: Art and Architecture, edited by M. Hattstein and P. Delius, Konemann, Koln, Germany, pp 530-533.

  • Gans-Ruedin, E. 1975: Antique Oriental Carpets from the Seventeenth to the Early Twentieth Century, translated from Le tapis de l'Amateur by Richard and Elizabeth Bartlett. London: Thames and Hudson.

  • Saoud, Rabah 2004: The Muslim Carpet and the Origin of Carpeting.

  • Sardar, Marika 2003: Carpets from the Islamic World, 1600–1800". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000 –.

  • Spuhler, F. 1978: Islamic Carpets and Textiles in the Keir Collection. London: Faber and Faber.

  • Victoria and Albert Museum (1920), Guide to the Collection of Carpets. London: HMSO.

  • Wirth, E. 1976: Der Orientteppich und Europa, Heft 37. Erlangen: Gedruckt inder universitatsbuchdruckere Junge & Sohn.

Top of the Page

School Zone

Schools

Libraries

  • Al-Jahiz 1926-27: Al-Bayan wa’l-tabyin, or Eloquence and Elucidation, edited by Hasan Sandubi in Adab al-Jahiz. Cairo, 1345–1346 H.

  • Al-Jahiz 1975: Al-Bayan wa’l-tabyin, edited by Abdussalam M. Harun. Cairo: Maktab al-Hansi, 4th edition.

  • Al-Muqaddasi 1897–1910: Ahsan al-Taqasim fi Ma‘rifat al-Aqalim: The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions. English translation by G. S. A. Ranking and Rizkallah F. Azoo. Bombay. Reprinted by Fuat Sezgin, Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften, 1989.

  • Al-Rammah, Murad 1995: “The Ancient Library of Kairaouan and its methods of conservation”, in The Conservation and preservation of Islamic manuscripts, Proceedings of the Third Conference of Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation, London, pp. pp 29-47.

  • Atiyeh, George N. (editor) 1995: The Book in the Islamic World: The Written Word and Communication in the Middle East. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

  • Eche, Y. 1967: Les Bibliothèques Arabes, Publiques et Semi Publiques en Mésopotamie, en Syrie et en Egypte au Moyen Age. Damascus: Institut Français.

  • Elayyan, Ribhi Mustafa 1990: “The History of the Arabic-Islamic Libraries: 7th to 14th Centuries”, International Library Review, vol. 22, issue 2, pp. 119-135.

  • FSTC Research Team 2007: Knowledge, Learning Institutions and Libraries in Islam: Book Publishing and Paper Making.

  • Heffening, W., Pearson, J.D.: “Maktaba”; Encyclopaedia of Islam, vol. VI, pp. 197-200.

  • Kohleberg, Etan 1992: A Medieval Muslim Scholar at Work. Ibn Tawus and his Library. Leiden: Brill.

  • Mackensen, R. S. 1935: “Background of the History of Muslim libraries”, The American Journal of Semitic languages and Literatures, vol. 52, pp. 22-33.

  • Micheau, Françoise 1996: “The Scientific Institutions in the Medieval Near East”, in The Encyclopaedia of the History of Arabic Science, edited by R. Rashed. London: Routledge, pp. 985-1007.

Mathematics, Trigonometry and Geometry

  • Abgrall, Philippe 2004: Le développement de la géométrie aux IXe-XIe siècles: Abu Sahl al-Quhi. Paris: Blanchard.
     
  • Abu Kamil, Shuja’ Ibn Aslam 1966: The Algebra of Abu Kamil: Kitab fi al-jabr wa 'l-muqabala. Translated by Martin Levey; Foreword by Marshall Clagett; Commentaries by Mordecai Finzi. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.
     
  • Al-Baghdadi: Kitab al-takmila fi ’ilm al-Hisab, or Book of Completion on the Science of Arithmetic. Suleymaniye Library, Laleli, MS 2708/1.
     
  • Abu al-Wafa’: Kitab al-Handasa: Book of Geometry. Cambridge University Library, UK has manuscript of the book: MS Persian no. 169, ancien fonds de la Bibliothèque impériale par M. Franz Woepcke, Library Number IV.12.59.
     
  • Abu al-Wafa’: Kitab fima yahtaju ilayhi al-sani najara fi amal al-handasiyya, or On Those Parts of Geometry Needed by Craftsmen. Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya, MS 2753.
     
  • Al-Biruni: Kitab al-Athar al-Baqiyya ‘an al-Qurun al-Khaliyya, or Chronology of Ancient Nations, also known as Vestiges of the Past. Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya, MS 2947. Translated into German and into English by C. Eduard Sachau as: Chronologie orientalischer völker. The Chronology of Ancient Nations. An English Version of the Arabic text of al-Athar al-baqiya... of al-Biruni, or ‛Vestiges of the Past’. London, 1879. Reprinted by Fuat Sezgin; Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften, 1998.
     
  • Al-Biruni 1985: Kitâb Maqalid ilm al-hay’a. La trigonomtrie sphérique chez les arabes de l’est a la fin du Xème siecle. Edited by Marie-Thérèse Debarnot. Damas: Institut Français de Damas.
     
  • Al-Khwarizmi: Kitab al-Mukhtasar fi Hisab al-Jabr wa-‘l-Muqabala: Compendious Book of Calculation by Completion and Balancing. Medina, MS Hikmat jabr 4, 6; Princeton University Library, New Jersey, USA has a copy of this book. It contains algebra, integration, simple equations, surveying and testamentary regulations for divisions of inheritances. Robert of Chester was the first to translate this book into Latin in 1145 CE which introduced algebra into Europe. Later on this book was translated by Gerard of Cremona also. The translation by Robert Chester of Khwarizmi's algebra marks the beginning of the era of the introduction and advancement of this branch of science in Europe. "The importance of Robert's Latin translation of Khwarizmi's algebra", says a modern historian of science, "can hardly be exaggerated because it marked the beginning of European algebra."
     
  • Al-Khwarizmi 1992: Le Calcul Indien 'Algorismus.' Histoire des textes, édition critique, traduction et commentaire des plus anciennes versions latines remaniées du XIIe siècle. Edited by André Allard. Paris/Namur: Blanchard/Peeters.
     
  • Al-Khwarizmi 1997: Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (fl.c. 200-815). Texts and Studies. Collected and reprinted by F. Sezgin et al. 4 vols. (Islamic Mathematics and Astronomy, 3-6). Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.
     
  • Al-Farabi: Maqala fi Ihsa al-‘Ulum, or The Book of the Enumeration of the Sciences. Istanbul, Koprulu Library, Koprulu 1604/1.
     
  • Al-Farabi 1932: Maqala fi Ihsa al-Ulum, or Catalogo de las ciencias. Edicion y traduccion castellana por Angel Gonzalez Palencia. Madrid, Universidad. Facultad de Folosofia y Letras. Publicaciones. Madrid: Imp. de Estanislao Maestre.
     
  • Al-Karaji: Al-Fakhir fi ’l-Jabr wa-’l-Muqabala. Istanbul, Suleymaniye Library, Husrev Pasa, MS 257/7.
     
  • Al-Karaji, Abu Bakr Muhamad ben al-Hasan 1986: Al-Kafi fi 'l-hisab (Genügendes über Arithmetik) von (4.-5. Jhd/10-11.Jhd.u.) Ediert und kommentiert von Sami Chalhoub. Aleppo: Institute for the History of Aarabic Science.
     
  • Al-Khayyam, ‘Umar: Risala fi’l-barahin ‘ala masa’il al-jabr wa-’l-muqabala, or Treatise on Proofs of Problems of Algebra and Balancing. Cairo, Dar al-Kutub, MS Riyada 898/3.
     
  • Al-Siddiqi: Risala fi’l-handasa, or Treatise of Geometry. Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya, MS 2736.
     
  • Al-Tusi: Al-Jabr wa-’l-Muqabala. Vatican Library, MS 317/2.
     
  • Al-Uqlidisi, Abu al-Hasan Ahmad b. Ibrahim 1978: The Arithmetic of al-Uqlidisi. The Story of Hindu-Arabic Arithmetic as Told in 'Kitab al-fusul fi al-hisab al-hindi.' Translated and annotated by Ahmad Salim Saidan. Dordrecht: Reidel
     
  • Banu Musa Brothers: Tahriru Kitabi Ma‘rifat Misahat al-ashkal al-Basitat al-Kuriyya. Istanbul, Koprulu Library, I. Kisim, MS 930/14.
     
  • Ben Miled, Marouane 2005: Opérer sur le Continu. Traditions arabes du Livre X des Eléments d'Euclide, avec l'édition et la traduction du commentaire d'al-Mahani. Carthage: Beit al-Hikma.
     
  • Berggren, Lennart J. 1985: "History of Mathematics in the Islamic World: The Present state of the Art." Bulletin of the Middle East Studies Association vol. 19, pp. 9-33.
     
  • Berggren, L. J. 1986: Episodes in the Mathematics of Medieval Islam. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
     
  • Berggren, L. J. 1997: "Mathematics and Her Sisters in Medieval Islam: A Selective Review of Work Done from 1985 to 1995." Historia Mathematica vol. 24, pp. 407-440.
     
  • Djebbar, Ahmed, 2005: L'algèbre arabe: Genèse d'un art. Paris: Adapt-Vuibert.
     
  • Folkerts, Menso, and Kunitsch, Paul 1997: Die älteste lateinische Schrift über das indische Rechnen nach al-Khwarizmi. Edition, Übersetzung und Kommentar. München: Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse, Abhandlungen, Neue Folge, Heft 113.
     
  • Jaouiche, Khalil 1986: La théorie des parallèles en pays d'Islam. Contribution à la préhistoire des géométries non-euclidiennes. Paris: Vrin.
     
  • Lorch, Richard 2001: Thabit Ibn Qurra: On the Sector-Figure and Related Texts. Edited with Translation and Commentary. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.
     
  • Rashed, Roshdi 1984: Entre arithmétique et algèbre. Recherches sur l'histoire des mathématiques arabes. Paris: Les Belles Lettres. Traduction anglaise: The Development of Arabic Mathematics. Between Arithmetic and Algebra. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1994.
     
  • Rashed, R. 1993: Les Mathématiques Infinitésimales du IXe au XIe siécles. Vol. II: Ibn al-Haytham. London: al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation.
     
  • Rashed, R. 1996: Les Mathématiques infinitésimales du IXe au XIe siécles. Volume I: Fondateurs et commentateurs. London: al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation.
     
  • Rashed, R. 2000: Les Mathématiques infinitésimales du IXe au XIe siècle. Vol. III: Ibn al-Haytham. Théorie des coniques, constructions géométriques et géométrie pratique. London: al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation.
     
  • Rashed, R. 2002: Les Mathématiques infinitésimales du IXe au XIe siècle. Vol. IV: Méthodes géométriques, transformations ponctuelles et philosophie des mathématiques. London: al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation.
     
  • Rashed, R. 2004: Œuvre mathématique d'al-Sijzi. Géométrie des coniques et théorie des nombres au Xe siècle. (Les Cahiers du Mideo, 3). Louvain/Paris: Peeter.
     
  • Rashed, Roshdi, and Vahabzadeh, Bijan 1999: Al-Khayyam mathématicien. Paris: Blanchard. English translation: Omar Khayyam the Mathematician. New York: Bibliotheca Persica Press, 2000.
     
  • Rosen, Frederick 1986: The Algebra of Mohammed ben Musa. Edited and translated by Frederick Rosen. Hildesheim: Olms Verlag. Reprint of the first edition London: Oriental Translation Fund, 1831.

Chemistry

  • Al-Kindi: Kitab Kimiya’ al-‘itr wa’t-tas’idat. See ‘Cleanliness’ section.
     
  • Al-Razi: Kitab al Asrar, or The Book of the Secret of the Secrets. Istanbul University Library, Sarkiyat, MS E 77, and the National Library of Medicine, USA, MS A 33 item 9. It contains a description of laboratory equipment.
     
  • Al-Samawi al-‘Iraqi, Abu Al-Qasim Muhammad b. Ahmad 1923: Kitab Nihayat al-talab fi sharh kitab [al-‘ilm] al-muktasab fi zira’at-i al-dhahab. Texte arabe édité et traduit par Erik John Holmyard. Paris: Paul Geuthner. Réimprimé dans Chemistry and Alchemy. Texts and Studies. Collected and reprinted by F. Sezgin et al. Vol. 7. (Natural Sciences in Islam, vol. 61). Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften, 2001.
     
  • Jabir ibn Hayyan: Kitab al-Sab‘in, or Book of Seventy Treatises on Alchemy. Istanbul University Library, MS AY 6314. This book contains: Al-Khawass al-Kabir or ‘Great Book of Chemical Properties’, Al-Mawazin or ‘The Weights and Measures’; Al-Mizaj or ‘The Chemical Combination’; and Al-Asbagh or ‘The Dyes’.
     
  • Jabir ibn Hayyan: Kitab fi al- Kimiya’. Vatican Library, MS 1485/1.
     
  • Jabir Ibn Hayyan 1928: The Arabic Works of Jabir Ibn Hayyan. Arabic texts edited by Eric John Holmyard. Paris: Paul Geuthner.
     
  • Jabir Ibn Hayyan 1983: Dix traités d'alchimie: les dix premiers traités du livre des soixante-dix. French translation by Pierre Lory. Paris: Sindbad.
     
  • Jabir Ibn Hayyan 1986: Kitab al-Sab’in. The Book of Seventy. Introduction in Arabic and English by F. Sezgin. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften. Edition in facsimile of a copy dated from the 13th century of an important text of the corpus of Jabir Ibn Hayyan devoted to chemistry and alchemy.
     
  • Jabir ibn Hayyan 1988: L'élaboration de l'Elixir Suprême [Tadbîr al-iksîr al-a‘zam]– Quatorze traités de Jâbir ibn Hayyân sur le Grand Oeuvre alchimique. Edited and translated by Pierre Lory. Damascus : Publications de l’Institut Français d’Études Arabes.
     
  • Jabir Ibn Hayyan 2002: Jabir Ibn Hayyan. Texts and Studies. Collected and reprinted by Fuat Sezgin et al. 3 vols. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.
     
  • Nomanul Haq, Syed 1994: Names, Natures and Things: The Alchemist Jabir Ibn Hayyan and his Kitab-al-Ahjar (Book of Stones). Foreword by David E. Pingree. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
     
  • Ibn Badis: Umdat al-Kuttab wa ‘Uddat Dhawi al-Albab. See ‘Carpets’ section.
     
  • Ibn Umayl 2002: Ibn Umayl Abu `Abd Allah Muhammad (fl. c. 300/912): Texts and Studies. Frankfurt: Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Sciences.
     
  • Kraus, Paul 1942 : Jabir ibn Hayyan : contribution à l'historire des idées scientifiques dans l'Islam. Le Caire: Impr. de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale. Reprinted: Kraus, Paul (1986). Jabir Ibn Hayyan : contribution à l'histoire des idées scientifiques dans l'Islam : Jabir et la science grecque. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.
     
  • Newman, W. R. (1991). The Summa perfectionis of Pseudo-Geber : A Critical edition, translation and study. Leiden/New York: E.J. Brill.

Story Corner

  • Conrade, L.I. (editor) 1986: The World of Ibn Tufayl: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Hayy Ibn Yaczan. Leiden: Brill, “Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Sciences Series”, vol. 24. (Contains a large bibliography of works on Ibn Tufayl.)

  • Goodman, L. 1996: 'Ibn Tufayl', in S.H. Nasr and O. Leaman (eds.), History of Islamic Philosophy, London: Routledge, chapter 22, pp. 313-29. (Good examination of Ibn Tufayl's life and thought.)

  • Hawi, S. 1973: “Ibn Tufayl's Hayy Ibn Yaqzan: Its Structure, Literary Aspects and Methods”, Islamic Culture, vol. 47, pp. 191-211. (Focuses on the most essential elements of the work, insisting that it is not a 'symbolic expression' but a 'philosophical discourse'.)

  • Hawi, S. 1974: Islamic Naturalism and Mysticism: A Philosophical Study of Ibn Tufayl's Hayy Yaqzan, Leiden: Brill. (Study of Hayy Ibn Yaqzan.)

  • Hawi, S. 1974: “Beyond Naturalism: A Brief Study of Ibn Tufayl's Hayy Ibn Yaqzan”, Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, vol. 22, pp. 249-67. (Lucid and shows a good grasp of Ibn Tufayl's view of mystical experience.)

  • Hawi, S. 1976: “Ibn Tufayl's Appraisal of His Predecessors and Their Influence on His Thought'” International Journal of Middle East Studies, vol. 7, pp. 89-121. (An attempt to show Ibn Tufayl's originality and the influence on him of al-Farabi and al-Ghazali, rather than Ibn Sina.)

  • Ibn Tufayl 1708: The improvement of human reason, exhibited in the life of Hai ebn Yokdhan, written in Arabick above 500 years ago, by Abu Jaafar ebn Tophail, newly translated from the original Arabick, by Simon Ockley. With an appendix, in which the possibility of man's attaining the true knowledg of God, and things necessary to salvation, without instruction, is briefly consider'd. London: Printed and sold by E. Powell.

  • Ibn Tufayl, Abu Bakr 1929: The history of Hayy Ibn Yaqzan, translated from the Arabic by Simon Ockley, revised, with an introdroduction by A.S. Fulton. London: Chapman and Hall, (omits the introductory section)

  • Ibn Tufayl 1972: Ibn Tufayl's Hayy ibn Yaqzān: a philosophical tale, translated with introduction and notes by Lenn Evan Goodman. New York: Twayne.

  • Ibn Tufayl 1982: The journey of the soul: the story of Hai bin Yaqzan, as told by Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Tufail, a new translation by Riad Kocache. London: Octagon.

Top of the Page

Market Zone

Agricultural Revolution

  • Bolens, Lucie 1974: Les méthodes culturales au Moyen Age d'après les traités d'agronomie andalous: Traditions et techniques. Thèse de 3ème Cycle. Genève : Editions Médecine et Hygiène.
     
  • Bolens, L. 1997: "Agriculture", in Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine in Non Western Cultures, edited by Helaine Selin, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London, pp. 20-22.
     
  • Bolens, L. 1981: Agronomes Andalous du Moyen Age. Paris/Genève : Librairie Droz.
     
  • Idrisi, Zohor 2006: The Muslim Agricultural Revolution.
     
  • FSTC Research Team 2001: Agriculture in Muslim civilisation: A Green Revolution in Pre-Modern Times.
     
  • Abu Safieh, Jaser 2010: Gleanings from the Islamic Contribution in Agriculture.
     
  • Ibn al-Awwam: Kitab al-Filaha, or Book of Agriculture. Istanbul University Library, TY 5823 and Library of the Topkapi Palace Museum, Hazine 429. There is also a French copy in the Library of Congress, USA, entitled Le livre l’agriculture d’ Ibn Awam. Library/Call Number S.493.I.1814.
     
  • Ibn al-Awwam 2001: Kitab al-Filaha : Le livre de l’agriculture. Ed. by Fuat Sezgin; traduit de l’Arabe par J. J. Clément-Mullet. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.
     
  • Ibn Wahshiya 1995: Al-Filaha al-Nabatiya: L’agriculture nabatéenne. Edited by Taoufic Fahd. Damascus: Institut Français de Damas.
     
  • Ibn Wahshiyya 1984: Al-Filaha al-Nabatiya: The Book of Nabatean Agriculture, vols. I-VII. Ed. by Fuat Sezgin. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.
     
  • Al-Mas’udi: Muruj al-dhahab wa-Ma‘adin al-Jawhar: The Meadows of Gold and Quarries of Jewels, The Library of Congress, Washington DC, MS D17, M32.
     
  • Al-Mas’udi 1964: Muruj al-dhahab wa Ma‘adin al-Jawhar; vols. I-VI. Edited by Muhammad Muhyiddin Abdulhamid. Cairo: Al-Maktaba al-Tijariya al-Kubra.
     
  • Abu 'l-Jayr al-Ishbili 1991, Kitab al-filaha, tratado de agricultura. Introduccion, edicion e indices por Julia Maria Carabaza Bravo. Madrid: Instituto de Cooperacion con el Mundo Arabe.
     
  • Eguaras Ibanez, Joaquina 1988: Ibn Luyun: tratado de agricultura. Granada: Patronato de la Alhambra y Generalife.
     
  • Garcia Sanchez, Expiracion 1988: "El Tratado agricola del granadino Al-Tignari." In: Quaderni di studi arabi. Venezia: Casa editrice Armena, pp. 279-291.
     
  • Garcia Sanchez, Expiracion 1992: "Agriculture in Muslim Spain." In: The Legacy of Muslim Spain. Leiden: Brill, pp. 987-999.
     
  • Garcia Sanchez, Expiracion & Alvarez de Morales, Camilo et al. (éditeurs) 1990-2004 : Ciencias de la naturaleza en al-Andalus: textos y estudios. 7 vols. Madrid/ Granada: C.S.I.C./ Escuela de Estudios Arabes.
     
  • Guzman Alvarez, José Ramon 2005 : "El compendio de agricultura atribuido a Ibn Wafid al-Nahrawi: nuevas perspectivas sobre su autoria." Anaquel de estudios arabes (Madrid) n° 16: pp. 83-124.
     
  • Ibn al-‘Awwam, al-Shaykh Abu Zakariya Yahya 1977 : Le Livre de l'agriculture. Traduit de l'arabe par J.-J. Clément-Mullet. 3 vols. Tunis: A. Bouslama, 2nd edition. Reprinted in: Ibn al-‘Auwam (début 12e siècle): Le Livre de l'Agriculture (Kitab al-filaha). Traduit de l'arabe par J.-J. Clément-Mullet. 2 vols. (Natural Sciences in Islam, 25-26). Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften, 2001.
     
  • Ibn Bassal, Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad b. Ibrahim: 1995, Libro de agricultura. Estudio preliminar por Expiracion Garcia Sanchez y J. Esteban Hernandez Bermejo. Edicido, traducido y anotado por José Maria Millas Vallicrosa y Mohamed Aziman. Granada: Sierra Nevada,. Reedition of the original release (Tetuan, 1955).
     
  • Ibn Wahshiya 1993-98: Al-Filaha al-nabatiya. The Book of Nabatean Agriculture. 7 vols. Introduction in Arabic and English by Fuat Sezgin. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.
     
  • Varisco, Daniel Martin: 1994: Medieval Agriculture and Islamic Science: The Almanac of a Yemeni Sultan. Seattle: The University of Washington Press.
     
  • Shatzmiller, Maya 1994: Labour in the Medieval Islamic World. Leiden: Brill.
     
  • Vernet, Juan, Samso, Julio 1996: "Development of Arabic Science in Andalusia", in The Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Sciences, edited by Roshdi Rashed. London: Routledge, vol. 1, pp. 243-276.
     
  • Watson, A. M. 1974: "The Arab Agricultural Revolution and its Diffusion, 700-1100", The Journal of Economic History, vol. 34 (1), 1974, pp. 8-35.
     
  • Watson, A. M. 1981: "A Medieval Green Revolution: New Crops and Farming Techniques in the Early Islamic World", in The Islamic Middle East, 700-1900: Studies in Economic and Social History, edited by A. L. Udovitch. Princeton, NJ: The Darwin Press (Princeton Studies on the Near East), pp. 29-58.
     
  • Watson, Andrew M. 1983: Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World, Cambridge University Press.

Farming Manuals

  • Ibn al-Awwam: Kitab al-Filaha. See ‘Agricultural Revolution’ section.
     
  • FSTC Research Team, Agriculture in Muslim civilisation: A Green Revolution in Pre-Modern Times.
     
  • FSTC, Muslim Heritage Interview Series - Interview 3: Dr. Zohor Idrisi.
     
  • Cherbonneau, A. 1946: "Kitab al-Filaha of Abu Khayr al-Ichbili", in Bulletin d‘Etudes Arabes (Alger), vol. 6, pp. 130-44.
     
  • Al-Ishbili, Abu al-Khayr 1946 : Kitâb al-Filâh'a ou Le Livre de la culture [by Aboû 'l-Khayr ach-Chadjdjâr al-Ichbîlî], notice et extraits traduits par Auguste Cherbonneau, éclaicissements par Henri Pérès, Alger: Carbonel.
     
  • Al-Ishbili, Abu al-Khayr 1991 : Kitāb al-Filāha. Tratado de agricultura. Introduccion, edicion e indices por Julia Maria Carabaza Bravo. Madrid: Instituto de Cooperacion con el Mundo Arabe.
     
  • Al-Ishbili, Abu al-Khayr 1995: 'Umdat al-tabīb fī ma'rifat al-nabāt, edited by Muhammad al-'Arabī al-Khattābī. Beirut, 2 vols.
     
  • Al-Ishbili, Abu al-Khayr 2004-07: Kitābu 'umdati al-tabīb fī ma'rifat al-nabāt li-kulli labīb. Libro base del médico para el conocimiento de la botánica por todo expert. Edited, annotated and translated into Spanish by Joaquín Bustamante, Frederico Corriente and Mahomed Tilmatine. Madrid, 2 vols.
     
  • Al-Baghdadi, Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Katib al-Baghdadi 1934: Kitab al-Tabikh [The Book of Cookery], edited by Dawud al-Jalabi. Al-Musil: Matba'at Umm al-Rabi'ayn. Reprint in Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-Jadid, 1964.
     
  • Al-Isra'ili, Ishaq ibn Sulayman 1992: Kitab al-Aghdhiyah wa-al-Adwiyah [The Book of Foods and Medicines]. Beirut: Mu'assasat 'Izz al-'Arab lil-T'iba'a wa 'l-Nashr.
     
  • [Anonymous] 1993: Kanz al-Fawa'id fi Tanwi' al-Mawa'id: Medieval Arab-Islamic Culinary Art. Edited by Manuela Marin and David Waines. Beirut: in Kommission bei Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart.
     
  • Carrara, Angelo Alvares 2006: "Geoponica and Nabataean Agriculture: a New Approach into their Sources and Authorship", in Arabic Science and Philosophy, vol. 16, pp. 103-132.
     
  • Eguaras Ibáñez, J. 1988 : Ibn Luyun: Tratado de Agricultura. Granada, Patronato de la Alhambra y Generalife.
     
  • El Faïz, Mohammed 1995 : L'agronomie de la Mésopotamie antique: analyse du "Livre de l'agriculture nabatéenne" de Qûtâmä. Leiden: Brill.
     
  • Fahd, Toufic 1996: "Botany and Agriculture", in Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, edited by R Rashed. London and New York: Routledge, vol. 3, pp. 813-52.
     
  • FSTC Research Team 2001: The Globalisation of Crops.
     
  • FSTC Research Team 2001: Farming Manuals.
     
  • Idrisi, Zohor 2006: The Muslim Agricultural Revolution.
     
  • FSTC Research Team 2006: Muslim Contribution to Spanish Agriculture.
     
  • García Gómez, E. 1945: "Sobre agricultura arábigo-andaluza", Al-Andalus, vol. 10, pp. 127-146.
     
  • Garcia Sanchez, Expiracion 1988: "El Tratado agricola del granadino Al-Tignari", Quaderni di studi arabi. Venezia: Casa editrice Armena, pp. 279-291.
     
  • Garcia Sanchez, E. 1992. "Agriculture in Muslim Spain." In: The Legacy of Muslim Spain. Leiden: Brill, pp. 987-999.
     
  • Garcia Sanchez, E. 1995: "Cultivos y espacios agricolas irrigados en al-Andalus", in Agricultura y regadio en al-Andalus. Sintesis y problemas. Almeria: Instituto de estudios almerienses.
     
  • Garcia Sanchez, E. 2000 : "Botanica y agronomia en Tulaytula", in: Entre el Califato y la Taifa: mil anos del Cristo de la Luz. Actas del coloquio internacional (Toledo, diciembre 1999). Toledo: Asociacion de amigos del Toledo islamico, pp. 135-152.
     
  • Garcia Sanchez, Expiracion & Alvarez de Morales, Camilo et al. (editors) 1990-2004 : Ciencias de la naturaleza en al-Andalus: textos y estudios. Madrid/Granada: C.S.I.C./Escuela de Estudios Arabes, 7 vols.
     
  • Guzman Alvarez, José Ramon 2005: "El compendio de agricultura atribuido a Ibn Wafid al-Nahrawi: nuevas perspectivas sobre su autoria", Anaquel de estudios arabes (Madrid) n° 16, pp. 83-124.
     
  • Glick, Thomas 1979: Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
     
  • Ibn al-'Awwam, Abu Zakariya Yahya ibn Muhammad ibn al-Awwam al-Ishbili 1802: Kitab al-Filahah al-Andalusiyah [Libro de agricultura], translated into Spanish and annotated by Joseph Antonio Banqueri. Madrid: Imprenta Real.
     
  • Ibn al-Awwam, al-Shaykh Abu Zakariya Yahya 1977: Le Livre de l'Agriculture. Traduit de l'arabe par J.-J. Clément-Mullet, 3 vols (Paris, 1864), reprinted in Tunis: A. Bouslama, 2nd edition.
     
  • Ibn al-Awwam 1988: Kitab al-Filaha. Libro de agricultura, su autor el doctor excelente Abu Zacaria Iahia. Traducido al castellano y anotado por Josef Antonio Banqueri. Madrid: Ministerio de agricultura, pesca y alimentacion (reprint of 1802 edition).
     
  • Ibn al-Awwam 2000: Le livre de l'agriculture. Paris: Actes Sud (paperback edition of the French translation by J.-J. Clément-Mullet, Paris 1864).
     
  • [Ibn al-Awwam], Ibn al-'Auwam (début 12e siècle): Le Livre de l'Agriculture (Kitab al-filaha). Traduit de l'arabe par J.-J. Clément-Mullet, 2 vols. (Natural Sciences in Islam, 25-26). Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Aarabisch-Islamisch Wissenchaften.
     
  • Ibn Bassal, Abu Abdallah b. Ibrahim 1955: Libro de agricultura, Kitab al-filaha. Edited and commented upon by Jose Maria Millas Vallicrosa and Mohammed Aziman. Tetuan: Instituto Muley al-Hasan.
     
  • Ibn Bassal 1995 : Libro de agricultura. Estudio preliminar por Expiracion Garcia Sanchez y J. Esteban Hernandez Bermejo. Edicido, traducido y anotado por José Maria Millas Vallicrosa y Mohamed Aziman. Granada: Sierra Nevada.
     
  • Ibn Hajjaj al-Ishbili 1982: Al-Muqni' fi al-filaha, edited by Salah Jarrar and Jaser Abu Safeya. Amman: The Jordanian Academy of Arabic Language.
     
  • Ibn Khalsun, Muhammad ibn Yusuf 1996: Kitab al-Aghdhiyah wa Hifz al-Sihhah [The Book of Foods and Health Maintenance], edited and translated into French by Suzanne Gigandet. Damascus: Institut Francais de Damas.
     
  • Ibn Luyun Al-Tujjibi, Abu 'Uthman Sa'd b. Ahmad 2001: Ikhtisarat min kitab al-filaha: Nass andalusi min al-'asr al-murabiti mustakhlas min asl filahi mafqud li-Muhammad b. Malik al-Tighnari, wadh' Ibn Luyn al-Tujjibi. Dirasa wa-tahqiq Ahmad al-Tahiri. Casablanca: Matba'at al-najah al-jadida.
     
  • Ibn Wahshiya 1993-95: L'agriculture nabatéenne: traduction en arabe attribuée à Abu Bakr Ahmad b. 'Ali al-Kasdani connu sous le nom d'Ibn Wahsiyya, edited by Toufic Fahd. Damascus: Institut Français de Damas, 3 vols.
     
  • Millas Vallicrosa, Jose Maria 1960 : "Sobre la obra de agricultura de Ibn Bassal", in Nuevos estudios sobre historia de laciencia Espanola. Barcelona: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas.
     
  • Lopez, Angel C. 1990: Kitab fi tartib awqat al-girasa wa-l-magr´sat. Un tratado agricola andalusi anonimo. Edicion, traduccion y estudio con glosario de Angel C. Lopez y Lopez. Madrid: C.S.I.C.
     
  • Nuez Vinals, Fernando (editor) 2002: La herencia árabe en la agricultura y el bienestar de occidente. Valencia: Universidad Politécnica de Valencia/Fundacion la Huella Arabe.

Ecology Ecological Balance

  • Al-Hassani, Salim 2009: 1000 Years Amnesia: Environment Tradition in Muslim Heritage.
     
  • Al-Hawās, Fahad 2003: The Archaeological and Architectural Remains of the Ancient City of Faid in the Province of Hā'il in Saudi Arabia. PhD Thesis, University of Southampton, UK.
     
  • Al-Isra'īlī, Ya'qūb 2006: Mizāj Dimashq wa Wad'ihā wa Tafāwutihā min Misr (Temperament of Damascus, Its Location and Variance from Egypt), edited by Lutfallah Gari in ‘Ālam al-Makhtūtāt wa al-Nawādir, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 428-457. Reprinted in Risālatān fī al-Jughrāfiya al-Tibbiyah (Two Treatises on Medical Geography). Kuwait: Kuwait University and Kuwait Geographical Society.
     
  • Al-Masīhī, Abū Sahl 2006: “Fī Tahqīq Amr al-Wabā' wa-‘l-Ihtirāz Minhu Idhā Waqa” (About Investigating the Nature of Epidemics, Prevention and Cure), edited by Lutfallah Gari, Journal for the History of Arabic Science, vol. 13 pp. 5-55. Reprinted in Risālatān fī al-Jughrāfiya al-Ţibbiyah (Two Treatises on Medical Geography). Kuwait: Kuwait University and Kuwait Geographical Society.
     
  • Al-Tamīmī al-Maqdisī 1999: Māddat al-Baqā' (The Survival Material), edited by Yahya Sh'ār. Cairo: The Institute of Arabic Manuscripts.
     
  • Foltz, Richard C. 2003: Islam and Ecology: Bibliography. (PDF version). Center for the Study of World Religions, Harvard Divinity School.
     
  • Gari, Lutfallah, 2006: "A History of the Hima Conservation System", Environment and History (The White Horse Press, Cambridge, UK), vol. 12, No. 2. (May 2006), pp. 213-228.
     
  • Gari, Lutfallah, 2008: Ecology in Muslim Heritage: Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of 13th Century.
     
  • Gari, Lutfallah, 2008: Ecology in Muslim Heritage: A History of the Hima Conservation System.
     
  • Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalānī 1999: Badhl al-Mā'ūn fī fadhl at-Tā‘ūn [About the Religious Virtue of Plague], edited by Ahmed I. A. al-Kātib. Riyadh: Al-'Āsimah Publishers.
     
  • Ibn Jumay' 1997: Tab' al-Iskanderiyya (Nature of Alexanderia), edited by Muraizen Aseeri and Sa'd al-Bishri. Mekka: Umm al-Qura University.
     
  • Shateh, Hadi Ali 2002: Interior Architecture of Desert Climate: Case Study of Gadames city (Libyan Desert) (see the full article in PDF).
     
  • Tickell, Sir Crispin 2009: Environment and the Muslim Heritage.

Water Management

  • Abattouy, Mohammed 2009: Muhammad Al-Karaji: A Mathematician Engineer from the Early 11th Century.
     
  • Al-Karaji: Kitab Intibat al-miyah al-khafiyyat: Extraction of Underground Waters. India, Patna, Oriental Public Library at Bankipore, 2468/32.
     
  • Al-Karaji 1940: Kitab inbat al-miyah al-khafiya. Haydarabd: Da'irat al-ma'arif al-'uthmaniya, 1359/1940.
     
  • Reprinted in: Water-Lifting Devices in the Islamic World: Texts and Studies. Collected and reprinted by F. Sezgin et al. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften, 2001, pp. 302-398.
     
  • Al-Karaji 1973: La civilisation des eaux cachées: Traité de l'exploitation des eaux souterraines composé en 1017 a.d. Texte établi, traduit et commenté par Ali Mazahéri. Nice : Universite´ de Nice, Institut d'études et de recherches interethniques et interculturelles (IDERIC).
     
  • Al-Karaji 1997: Kitab inbat al-miyah al-khafiya. Tahqiq wa-dirasa [edition and analysis by] Baghdad Abdul-Mun'im. Cairo: Institute of Arabic Manuscripts, 1997.
     
  • Al-Karaji 2007: L'Estrazione delle acque nascoste: Trattato tecnico-scientifico di Karaji Matematico-ingegnere persiano vissuto nel Mille by Giuseppina Ferriello. Con una Prefazione di Romano Gatto. Turin: Kim Williams Books.
     
  • Al-Maqrizi 1970: Kitab al-Suluk li Ma’rifat Duwal al-Muluk: Book of Entrance to the Knowledge of the Dynasties of the Kings. Published by Said A F Ashour. Cairo: Matba’at Dar al-Kutub.
     
  • Al-Nuwayri 1923: Nihayat al-Arab fi Funun al-Adab, or The Arab Art of Manners. Cairo: Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyah.
     
  • Bolens, L. 1972 : "L'Eau et l'irrigation d'après les traités d'agronomie Andalous au Moyen Age (XI-XIIèmes siècles)", Options Méditerranéenes, vol. 16, pp. 65-77.
     
  • Covington, Richard 2006: The Art and Science of Water, in Saudi Aramco World, May/June 2006, vol. 57, Number 3, pp. 14-23.
     
  • FSTC Research Team, Water Management and Hydraulic Technology (published 30 December 2001).
     
  • Glick, Thomas F. 1996: Irrigation and Hydraulic Technology: Medieval Spain and its Legacy, Varorium, Aldershot.
     
  • Krenkow F., 1947-9, "The Construction of Subterranean Water Supplies during the Abbaside [sic] Caliphate", Transactions of the Glascow University Oriental Society, vol. 13, pp. 23-32. Reprinted in Water-Lifting Devices in the Islamic World. Texts and Studies. Collected and Reprinted by F. Sezgin et al., Frankfurt, 2001.
     
  • Lightfoot, Dale R. 2005: "The Origin and Diffusion of Qanats in Arabia: New Evidence from the northern and southern Peninsula", Geographical Journal (Royal Geographical Society, UK), vol. 166, Issue 3, July, pp. 215-226.

Raising Water

  • Al-Jazari: Al-Jami’ bayn al-’Ilm al-Nafi’ wa sina’at al-Hiyal. See ‘Clocks’ section.
     
  • FSTC Research Team, 2001: Water Management and Hydraulic Technology.
     
  • Krenkow F., 1947-9: "The Construction of Subterranean Water Supplies during the Abbaside [sic] Caliphate", Transactions of the Glascow University Oriental Society, vol. 13, pp. 23-32.
     
  • Schiøler, Thorkild 1973: Roman and Islamic Water-Lifting Wheels. Odense: Odense University Press.
     
  • Sezgin, F. et al. 2001: Water-lifting Devices in the Islamic World. Texts and Studies. Collected and reprinted. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.
     
  • Taqi al-Din: Turuq al-Saniyya fi al-Alat al-Ruhaniyya, or The Sublime Methods of Spiritual Machines. Cairo, Dar al-Kutub, Miqat 4.
     
  • Wiedemann, Eilhard, and Hauser, Franz 1921: "Über Vorrichtungen zum Heben von Wasser in der Islamischen Welt", Beitrage zür Geschichte der Tecknik und Industrie, vol. 8, , pp. 121-154.

Dams

  • Al-Idrisi: Nuzhat al-Mushtaq fi ‘khtirak al-Afaq or Al-Kitab al-Rujari, or A Recreation for the Person who Longs to Traverse the Horizons or Book of Roger. Istanbul, Suleymaniye Library, Husrev Pasa, MS 318.
     
  • Al-Idrisi 1992: Nuzhat al-Mushtaq fi ‘khtirak al-Afaq . Reprinted by Fuat Sezgin. Farnkfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.
     
  • Bolens, Lucie 1997: "Irrigation", in Encyclopedia of the history of Science, technology, and Medicine in Non Western Cultures, edited by Helaine Selin. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht/ Boston/London, pp. 450-2.
     
  • FSTC Research Team 2001: Dam Construction in the Islamic Civil Engineering.
     
  • Hill, Donald R. 1993: Islamic Science and Engineering. Edinburgh University Press.
     
  • Hill, D. R. and Al-Hassan, Ahmad Y.: Engineering in Arabic-Islamic Civilization. Part One.
     
  • James, Patrick 2004: Une Histoire Revisée des Barrages-Voûtes: Des Barrages Romains aux Ouvrages Modernes en Béton.
     
  • Rabie, H.: "Pre-20th century Irrigation in Egypt", in Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, vol. 5, pp. 862-4.
     
  • Schnitter, N.J., A History of Dams. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1994.
     
  • Smith, N. 1971: A History of Dams. London: Peter Davies.
     
  • Solignac, A. 1952 : "Recherches sur les installations hydrauliques de kairaouan et des Steppes Tunisiennes du VIIème au XIème siécle", Annales de l‘Institut des Etudes Orientales, Algiers, vol. 10, pp. 5-273.
     
  • Watson, A.M.: Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World. Cambridge University Press, 1983.
     
  • White, Lynn Jr 1964: Medieval Technology and Social Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Windmills

  • Al-Masudi: Muruj al-dhahab wa-Ma‘adin al-Jawhar. See ‘Agricultural Revolution’ section.
     
  • Al-Hassan, Ahmad Y. and Hill, Donald R. 1986: Islamic Technology: An illustrated history, Cambridge University Press, p. 54 ff.
     
  • Hill, Donald R. 1991: "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, pp. 64-9.
     
  • Hill, D.R. 1993: Islamic Science and Engineering. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp 114-146.
     
  • Lohrmann, Dietrich 1995: "Von der östlichen zur westlichen Windmühle", Archiv für Kulturgeschichtei, vol. 77 (1), pp. 1-30.
     
  • Lucas, Adam, Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, Leiden: Brill, 2006.
     
  • Lunde, Paul, Windmills: From Jiddah to Yorkshire, Saudi Aramco World, January/February 1980, pp. 32-35.
     
  • Shepherd, Denis G., Historical Development of the Windmill, prepared for National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lewis Research Center, 1990.
     
  • Wulff, Hans 1966. Traditional Crafts of Persia. Their Development, Technology, and Influence on Eastern and Western Civilizations. Cambridge (Mass.): The MIT Press, pp. 284-289.

Trade

  • Abulafia, David 1994: "The Role of Trade in Muslim-Christian Contacts during the Middle Ages," in The Arab Influence in Medieval Europe, edited by Dionisius A. Agius and Richard Hitchcock. Reading, N.J.: Ithaca Press, 1994.
     
  • Chaudhuri, K. N. 1985: Trade and Civilisation in the Indian Ocean: An Economic History from the Rise of Islam to 1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
     
  • Fleet, Kate 1999: European and Islamic Trade in the Early Ottoman State: The Merchants of Genoa and Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
     
  • Fischel, Walter 1933: "The Origins of Banking in Medieval Islam: A Contribution to the Economic History of Jews in Baghdad in the Tenth Century," Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, pp. 339-352.
     
  • Ghazanfar, S. M. 1991: "Scholastic Economics and Arab Scholars: The 'Great Gap' Thesis Reconsidered," Diogenese: International Review of Humane Sciences; No.154, April-June, pp. 117-33.
     
  • Ghazanfar, S. M. 1998: "Post-Greek/Pre-Renaissance Economic Thought: Contributions of Arab-Islamic Scholastics during the 'Great Gap' Centuries," Research in History of Economic Thought and Methodology, vol. 16, pp. 65-90.
     
  • Ghazanfar, S. M. 2000: "The Economic Thought of Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali and St. Thomas Aquinas: Some Comparative Parallels and Links," History of Political Economy, vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 857-888.
     
  • Ghazanfar, S.M. and A. Azim Islahi 1990: "Economic Thought of an Arab Scholastic: Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (AH450-505/AD1058-1111)," History of Political Economy, vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 381-401.
     
  • Ghazanfar, S.M. (editor) 2003: Medieval Islamic Economic Thought: Filling the ‘Great Gap’ in European Economics, RoutledgeCurzon Publishers.
     
  • Ibn Hawqal 1938-1939: Kitab al-Masalik wa-al-Mamalik, or The Book of the Routes of the Kingdoms, or Opus geographicum auctore Ibn Haukal (Surat al-ard). Ed. by J H Kramers. 1-2, Lugduni Batavorum. Reprinted by by Fuat Sezgin, Frankfurt, 1992.
     
  • Labib, Subhi 1965: Handelsgeschichte Agyptens im Spatmittelalter (History of Trade of Egypt in the late Middle Ages); Wiesbaden.
     
  • Labib, Subhi 1969: “Capitalism in Medieval Islam,” Journal of Economic History, vol. 29, pp. 79-96.
     
  • Ritter, Helmut 1917: "Ein Arabisches Handbuch der Handelswissenschaft" [Handbook of Business Practices, 12th century CE]. Der Islam, vol.17, pp. 1-97.
     
  • Udovitch, Abraham 1967: "Labor Partnerships in Early Islamic Law," Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient, vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 64-80.
     
  • Udovitch, Abraham 1970: Partnership and Profit in Medieval Islam. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
     
  • Weiss, Walter M., Westermann, Kurt-Michael 1998: The Bazaar: Markets and Merchants of the Islamic World, Thames & Hudson.

Commercial Chemistry

  • Al-Hassan, Ahmad Y 1987: "Chemical Technology in Arabic Military Treatises. A Review of the Sources". In: From Deferent to Equant. Edited by D. A. King and G. Saliba. New York: New York Academy of Science, pp. 153-166.
     
  • Al-Hassan, A. Y.: online articles at History of Science and Technology in Islam:

- A Critical Reassessment of the Geber Problem: Part One: The Emergence of the Geber Problem: Berthelot’s Assumptions; Part Two: Jabir (Geber)’s Standing in the Latin West And the Translator of the Liber fornacum; Part Three: Berthelot’s Motives in Choosing the Wrong Arabic Alchemical Treatises and the Extant Arabic Works of Jabir on Theoretical and Practical Alchemy and Chemistry.
- The Geber Problem: The Origin of Liber Fornacum.
- Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine.
- Sal Nitri and Sal Petrae In Geber’s Latin Works.
- Potassium Nitrates in Arabic and Latin Sources.
- Jabir’s Latin Works and the Question of Geber.
- Eighth century treatise on glass: Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna (The Book of the Hidden Pearl of Jabir ibn Hayyan (c. 721–c. 815) On Coloured Glass, On Lustre, On Gemstones And Pearls: Part 1: The Manufacture of Coloured Glass; Part 2: Lustre Glass; Part 3: The Colouring Of Gemstones, The Purifying and Making of Pearls and Other Useful Recipes; Part 4: Assessment of Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna.
- Arabic Alchemy ('Ilm al-San'a): Science of the Art.
- Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries: Transmission of Practical Chemistry.
 

  • Al-Hassani, Salim, and Abattouy, Mohammed, 2008: The Advent of Scientific Chemistry.
     
  • Anawati, Georges 1996: "Arabic Alchemy". In: Encyclopaedia of the History of Arabic Science, edited by Roshdi Rashed. London: Routledge, pp. 853-885.
     
  • Al-Kindi: Kitab Kimiya’ al-‘itr wa’t-tas’idat. See ‘Cleanliness’ section.
     
  • FSTC Research Team, 2008: From Alchemy to Chemistry.

Paper

  • Ibn Badis: Umdat al-Kuttab wa ‘Uddat Dhawi al-Albab. See ‘Carpets’ section.
     
  • Ibn Hawqal: Kitab al-Masalik wa-al-Mamalik. See ‘Trade’ section.
     
  • Bloom, Jonathan M. 2001: Paper before Print: The History and Impact of Paper in the Islamic World. New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 203-213.
     
  • Burns, Robert I. 1996: "Paper comes to the West, 800−1400", in Lindgren, Uta, Europäische Technik im Mittelalter. 800 bis 1400. Tradition und Innovation (4th ed.), Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, pp. 413–42.
     
  • Hunter, Dard 1978: Papermaking: the history and technique of an ancient craft, Courier Dover Publications.
     
  • Quraishi, Silim 1989: "A survey of the development of papermaking in Islamic Countries", Bookbinder, vol. 3, pp. 29-36.
     
  • Levey, Martin 1962: Mediaeval Arabic Bookmaking and its Relation to Early Chemistry and Pharmacology. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series), vol. 52, part 4.
     
  • Levey, Martin 1962: "Mediaeval Arabic Bookmaking and Its Relation to Early Chemistry and Pharmacology". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 52(4), pp. 1–79.
     
  • Loveday, Helen 2001: Islamic Paper. A Study of the Ancient Craft. London: Archetype Publications, Don Baker Memorial Fund.

Pottery

  • Al-Maqrizi: Kitab al-Suluk li Ma’rifat Duwal al-Muluk. See ‘Water Management’ section.
     
  • Baramki, D.C. 1942: "The Pottery from Khirbet El-Mefjer", The Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities in Palestine, vol. 10, pp.65-103.
     
  • Sauer, J.A. 1975: "Umayyad pottery from sites in East Jordan”, Jordan, vol.4, pp.25-32.
     
  • Bernsted, A.K. 2003: Early Islamic Pottery: Materials and Techniques, London: Archetype Publications Ltd.
     
  • Mason, R.B. and Tite, M.S. 1994: “The Beginnings of Islamic Stonepaste Technology”, Archaeometry, vol. 36.1: 77.
     
  • Marçais, G. 1928 : Les faiences à reflets métalliques de la grande Mosquée de Kairouan. Paris.
     
  • Caiger-Smith, Alan 1985: Lustre Pottery: Technique, Tradition and Innovation in Islam and the Western World. Faber and Faber, chapters 6-7.
     
  • Cooper, Emmanuel 2000: Ten thousand Years of Pottery, University of Pennsylvania Press, 4th edition.
     
  • Mason, Robert B. 1995: "New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World". Muqarnas: Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture (Brill Academic Publishers) vol. 12.

Top of the Page

Hospital Zone

Hospital Development

  • Al-Khujandi: Al-Talwih li-Asrar al-Tanqih or Tanqih al-Maknun. Vatican Library, Ms 305.
     
  • FSTC Research Team 2009: Medical Sciences in the Islamic Civilization: Scholars, Fields of Expertise and Institutions.
     
  • Ibn Abi-Usaybi’a 1965: ‘Uyun ‘l-Anba Fi-Tabaqat AI-Atibba’ (The sources of the knowledge of classes of doctors), edited by Nizar Reda. Beirut: Dar Maktabat al-Hayat.
     
  • Ibn al-Nadim 1997: Al-Fihrist, edited by I. Ramadan. Beirut: Dar El-Ma’rifah, 2nd edition.
     
  • Ibn Jubayr 2001: Rihlat Ibn Jubayr, or The Travels of Ibn Jubayr. Translated from the original Arabic by R J C Broadhurst, with an introduction and notes. New Delhi: Goodword Books.
     
  • Ibn Juljul 1955: Tabbaqat al-Attibba’ wa-‘l-Hukamaa, edited by Fu’ad al-Sayed. Cairo: French Bureau Publications.
     
  • Ibn Sina: Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb, or Code of Laws in Medicine, referred to as the Canon. There are many old copies of this book in circulation. Suleymaniye Library, Hekimoglu 580. Copies (one in Latin) are also in Princeton University, New Jersey, Garrett Collection, MSS 1079, 1080, 1081, 1082 and 1083.
     
  • Ibn Sina 1995: Kitab al-Qanun fit-tibb. (Avicenna's Canon of Medicine) Beirut. Dar Sadir; reprint of Bulaq edition, Cairo, 1877.
     
  • Sa’id al-Andalusi 1996: Science in the Medieval World. The Book of the Categories of Nations, edited and translated by S. I. Salem and A. Kumar. Austin: University of Texas Press.
     
  • Savage Smith, Emilie 1996: "Medicine", in Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, edited by R. Rashed. London: Routledge, vol. 3, pp. 903-962.

Surgical Instruments

  • Al-Baghdadi, Muhadhdhab Al-Din 1942: Kitab al-Mukhtarat fi al Tibb. Hyderabad: Osmania University, The Bureau, Osmania Oriental Publications. 

  • Al-Baladi, Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Yahya 1987: Kitab tadbir al-habala wa al-atfal wa-hifz sehhatihim wa-mudawat al-amrad al-‘aridha lahum, edited by Mahmud Al-Hajj Qasim Muhammad. Baghdad: Dar Al-Shu’un al-Thaqafiya al-‘Amah, 2nd edition. 

  • Al-Razi 1961: Kitab al-Hawi fi al-tibb (The book of the collector of medicine) (Rhazes, Liber continens). Hyderabad: Osmania Oriental Publications Bureau.
     

  • Ibn al-Jazzar al-Qayrawani 1968: Kitab siyasat al-sibyan wa-tadbiruhum (The book for bringing up and care for children), edited by M. A. Al-Hailah. Tunisia: Al-Dar Al-Tunusiya li-n-nashr.
     
  • Ibn al-Quff 1356H: Al-‘Umdah fi al-Jiraha. Hyderabad: The Osmania Oriental Publication Bureau, 2 vols.
     
  • Ibn Sina 1995: Kitab al-Qanun fi al-tibb. Beirut: Dar Sadir.
     
  • Spink, M. S., Lewis, I. L. 1973: Albucassis on surgery and instruments. A definitive edition of the Arabic text with English translation and commentary. London : Wellcome Institute of the History of Medicine.
     
  • Ibn Zuhr 1983: Kitab al-Taysir fi al-Mudawat wa al-Tadbir (Book of Simplification Concerning Therapeutics and Diet), edited by M. Al-Khuri. Damascus: Darul Fikr Press for the Arab Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2 vols.

Surgery

  • Al-Razi: Kitab al-Hawi fi al-tib, .the book of the collector of medicine or Rhazes’ Liber continens. Istanbul, Library of the Topkapi Palace Museum, Ahmed III collection, MS 2125. The National Library of Medicine in Bethesda, Maryland, also has a copy dated 1094 CE, which is the oldest manuscript kept by the library and the third oldest Arabic medical manuscript known so far: MS A17f.
     
  • Al-Razi 1961: Kitab al-Hawi fi al-tibb. Hyderabad: The Osmania Oriental Publications Bureau.
     
  • Al-Razi 1978: Ma al-fariq aw al-furuq aw kalamun fi al-furuq bayn al-amradh (What are the clues to differentiate between diseases [of similar symptoms]), edited by Salman Qattaya. Aleppo: Institute for the Historyof Arabic Science, 1978.
     
  • Ibn al-Nafis 1991: Risalat al-A’dha’ (A treatise in physiology), edited by Yusuf Ziedan. Cairo: Al-Dar Al-Masriya-al-Lubnaniya.
     
  • Ibn al-Quff: Kitab al-‘Umda fi sina‘at al-jiraha: Basics in the Art of Surgery. Istanbul, Suleymaniye Library, Hekimoglu, MS 579. The Wellcome Trust Library, London, UK has a copy of this book which has been translated as A Pillar in the Art of Surgery. Library Number Wellcome MS Arabic 434.
     
  • Ibn al-Quff, Al-Umdah Fi Al-Jiraha. 2 vols. Hyderabad: Osmania Oriental Publication Bureau, 1356 H.
     
  • Ibn al-Quff: Al-Shafi fi al-Tibb. Vatican Library, Appendice 183.
     
  • Ibn Sina: Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb. See ‘Hospital Development’ section.
     
  • Spink MS, Lewis IL. 1973: Albucassis on surgery and instruments. A definitive edition of the Arabic text with English translation and commentary, edited and translated. London: Wellcome Institute of the History of Medicine.
     
  • Ibn Rushd (Averoes) 1999, Al-Kulliyyat fi al-Tibb (The basic principles of medicine), edited by Muhammad A. Al-Jabiry. Beirut: The Institute for Arabic Unity Studies.
     
  • Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) 1983: Kitab al-Taysir fi al-Mudawat wa-‘l-Tadbir (Book of Simplification Concerning Therapeutics and Diet), edited by M. al-Khuri. Damascus: Dar al-Fikr Press for the Arab Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2 vols..

Blood Circulation

  • Abdel-Halim, Rabie E. 2008: "Contributions of Ibn Al-Nafis to the progress of medicine and urology: A study and translations from his medical works", Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 29(1), pp. 13–22.
     
  • Abdel-Halim, Rabie E. 2011: Contributions of Ibn al-Nafis (1210-1288) to the Progress of Medicine and Urology.
     
  • Abdel-Halim, Rabie E. 2008: Ibn al-Nafis and Servetus: Letter to Editor and Author's Reply.
     
  • Al-Dabbagh S. A. 1987: “Ibn al-Nafis and the pulmonary circulation”, Lancet, 1: 1148.
     
  • Bylebyl, JJ, Pagel, W. 1971: “The chequered career of Galen’s doctrine on the pulmonary veins”, Medical History, vol. 15, pp. 211-229.
     
  • Castiglioni, A. 1975: A History of Medicine, translated from the Italian. New York: Jason Aronson Inc., pp. 278-279.
     
  • Ducasse E, Speziale F, Basle J C, Midy D. 2006: “Vascular knowledge in Medieval times was the turning point for humanistic trend”, Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg vol. 31, pp. 600-608.
     
  • Ibn al-Nafis: Sharh Tashrih al-Qanun, or Commentary on the Anatomy of the Canon of Avicenna. Istanbul, Suleymaniye Library, Fatih, MS 3626; The National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, MS A 21, MS A 56.
     
  • Ibn al-Nafis 1988: Kitab Sharh Tashrih al-Qanun, edited by Salman Qattaya. Cairo: The Egyyptian Manuscript Editing Bureau.
     
  • Iskander Albert Z. 1967: “Introduction”, in A catalogue of Arabic manuscripts on medicine and science in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library. London: The Wellcome Historical Medical Library Series, pp. 38-42.
     
  • Iskandar, Albert Z., "Ibn al-Nafis", Dictionary of Scientific Biography, New York, 1974, vol. 9, pp. 602–606.‎
     
  • Morgan, M. H. 2007: Lost history: The enduring legacy of Muslim scientists, thinkers and artists. Washington D.C.: National Geographic, pp. 214-215.
     
  • Pormann, Peter E., Savage Smith, Emilie 2007: Medieval Islamic Medicine. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 45-48.
     
  • Khan I. A., Daya S. K., Gowda RM 2005: “Evolution of the theory of circulation”, International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 98, pp. 519-521.
     
  • Savage Smith, Emilie 1995: "Attitudes toward dissection in medieval Islam," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, vol. 50, pp. 68−111. Reprinted in Islamic Medical and Scientific Tradition, ed. P. E. Pormann (London: Taylor & Francis, 4 vols., 2010), N° 11.
     
  • Savage Smith, E. 2007: "Anatomical Illustration in Arabic Manuscripts", in: Arab Painting: Text and Image in Illustrated Arabic Manuscripts, ed. Anna Contadini [Handbuch der Orientalistik, I, 90]. Leiden: Brill, 2007, pp. 147−59 and Figs. 1-6. Reprinted in Islamic Medical and Scientific Tradition, ed. P. E. Pormann (London: Taylor & Francis, 4 vols., 2010), N° 20.
     
  • Ullman M, Islamic Medicine. Islamic Surveys, Vol. 11, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1978, pp. 68-69.

Ibn Sina and Bone Fractures

  • Al-Majusi, ‘Ali ibn al-‘Abbas (d. 384 H/ 994 CE): Kitab Kamil al-Sina’a al-Tibbiya: The Complete Art of Medicine. Istanbul, Library of Topkapi Palace Museum, Ahmed III, MS 2060; Vatican Library, MS 314.
     
  • Al-Majusi: Kitab Kamil al-Sina’a al-Tibbiya al-Majusi. Bethesda, Maryland, USA, The National Library of Medecine, MS A2. The copy was finished on 15 May 1208 (7 Dhu al-Qa’dah 604 H) by the Christian scribe Tawma ibn Yusuf ibn Sarkis al-Masihi, who copied it for Mahmud ibn Zaki al-Ruqiy al-Shihabi. Shortly afterward it became the property of ‘Atiyah a Jewish physician of Damascus.
     
  • Burnett, Charles, Jacquart, Danielle (eds.) 1995: Constantine the African and ʻAlī Ibn Al-ʻAbbās Al-Magūsī: The Pantegni and Related Texts. Leiden: Brill.
     
  • Hamarneh, Sami 2008 [1970-80]: . "Al-Majūsī, Abu’l-Ḥasan ‘Alī Ibn ‘Abbās". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography.
     
  • Ibn Sina (d. 428 H/1037 CE), Al-Qanun fi al-tib: The Canon of Medicine (Kitab al-Qanun fi al-tibb) by Ibn Sina. Bethesda, Maryland, USA, The National Library of Medecine, MS A53. A rare complete copy made in Iran probably at the beginning of the 15th century.
     
  • Ibn Sina: Kitab al-Shifa’, or The Book of Cure, Healing or Remedy from Ignorance. Library of the Topkapi Palace Museum, Ahmed III, MS 3261. The University of Michigan in Chicago, Near East Division, USA, has some parts of a copy of this book: Heyworth-Dunne, MS 65.
     
  • Ibn Sina 1970: Avicenna’s De Anima: Being the Psychological Part of Kitab al-Shifa, or Kitab al-Shifa: al-fann al-sadis min al-tabiiyyat wa huwa kitab al-nafs, edited by Fazlurrahman. London: Oxford University Press, first edition 1959 (volume 1, part 6 of al-Shifa'.

Notebook of the Oculist

  • Abu al-Farag (Bar Hebraeus) 1996: The Abridged Version of ‘The Book of Simple Drugs’ of Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Al-Ghafiqi. Translated and edited by M. Meyerhof, G. P. Sobhy; reprinted by Fuat Sezgin. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.
     
  • Al-Ghafiqi 1933: Al-Murshid fil al-kuhl, or The Right Guide in Ophthalmic Drug. Barcelona: Laboratoires du Nord de l’Espagne.
     
  • Ibn Isa, ‘Ali: Tadhkirat al-Kahhalin, or Memorandum Book for Ophthalmologists or Notebook of the Oculist. Vatican Library, MS 313.
     
  • Ibn Isa: Tadhkirat al-Kahhalin. Translated into German by J. Hirschberg and J. Lippert (Leipzig, 1904), and into English by Casey A. Wood: The Tadhkirat of Ali ibn Isa of Baghdad. Memorandum Book of a 10th-Century Oculist. Chicago: Northwestern University Press, 1936.
     
  • Ibn Nafis: Al-Muhadhab fi tibb al-‘Ayn. Vatican Library, MS 307.
     
  • Ibn al-Nafis 1994: Al-Muhadhdhab fi al-Kuhl al-Mujarrab. Wafai MZ, Qalaji MR, editors. 2nd ed. Riyadh: Safir Press.
     
  • Khalifa ibn Abi al-Mahasin al-Halabi 1990: Al Kafi Fi al-Kuhl (The Book of Sufficient Knowledge in Ophthalmology). Edited by M. D. Al-Waffa’i et al. Rabat: ISESCO.
     
  • Sezgin, F., et al. 1996: Al-Ghafiqi: Texts and studies. Ed. by Fuat Sezgin; pub. by Mazen Amawi, Carl Ehrig-Eggert, Eckhard Neubauer. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.

Herbal Medicine

  • Al-Dinawari 1953: Kitab al-Nabat, or The Book of Plants. Ed. by Bernhard Lewin. Uppsala-Wiesbaden: A B Lundeguistska Bokhandeln.
     
  • Al-Ghafiqi 1932–40: Kitab al-adwiya al-Mufrada, or The Book of Simple Drugs. Cairo: Egyptian University.
     
  • Al-Ghafiqi 1937–38: Kitab jami’ al-Mufradat, known as Materia Medica, edited by Max Meyerhof and George P. Sobhy. Cairo: Cairo Medical Faculty.
     
  • Ibn al-Baytar: Kitab-al-Jami fil Adwiya al-Mufrada, or Dictionary of Simples Remedies and Food. Istanbul, Suleymaniye Library, Damad Ibrahim, MS 929; London, The Wellcome Trust Library, MS Arabic 429.
     
  • Ibn Samajun 1992: Jami al-adwiya al-Mufrada, or Collection of Simples, Medicinal Plants and Resulting Medicines. Published by Fuat Sezgin. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.

Pharmacy

  • Al-Biruni: Kitab al Saydana fi al-tib, or Book of Medicines or Book of Pharmacology. Istanbul, Suleymaniye Library, Izmirli I, MS 4175.
     
  • Al-Biruni 1973: Kitab al Saydana fi al-tib, edited with English translation by Hakim Mohammad Said, with an introduction, commentary and evaluation by Sami K Hamarneh. 2 vols. Karachi.
     
  • Al-Baghdadi 1941-44: Al Mukhtarat Fi Al-Tibb. Hyderabad: Osmania Oriental Publication Bureau, 4 vols., 1362-1364 H.
     
  • Al-Harawi 1996: Kitab al-Abniya ‘an Haqa’iq al-Adwiya: The Foundations of the True Properties of Remedies, published by Fuat Sezgin. Frankfur: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.
     
  • Al-Kindi: Aqrabadhin or Medical Formulary. Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya, MS 3603.
     
  • Al-Razi: Kitab al-Mansuri, or Liber almansoris. The manuscript was written for the Iranian prince Abu Salih al-Mansur ibn Ishaq in 903. Bethesda, Maryland, USA, MS A 28. The manuscript copy, which is dated of the 17th century, has a diagram of ventricles of cells in the brain.
     
  • Al-Zahrawi: Al-Tasrif li-man ‘ajiza ‘an al-ta’lif. See ‘Cleanliness’ section.
     
  • Ibn al-Baytar: Al-Jami’ Li-mufradat al-Adwiya wa-‘l-Aghdiya (Materia Medica). Baghdad: Al-Muthana Bookshop; n. d.
     
  • Ibn al-Wafid 2000: Kitab al-Adwiya: The Book of Simple Drugs, published by Ahmad Hasan Basaj. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-’Ilmiyah.
     
  • Ibn Sina: Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb. See ‘Hospital Development’ section.
     
  • Levey, Martin 1973: Early Arabic Pharmacology: An Introduction Based on Ancient and Medieval Sources. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Arabic Influence on European Medicine

  • Al-Majusi: Al-Kihalah (tibb al-`uyun) fi Kitab Kamil al-sina`ah al-tibbiyah al-ma`ruf bi-al-Malaki, or The Royal Book, also known as the Pantegni. Pub. by Muhammad Zafir Wafa’i; Muhammad Rawwas Qal`ah’ji. Damascus: Wizarat al-Thaqafah, 1997. The Wellcome Trust Library, London, UK has two copies of this book. These are stored in the Haddad Collection. Library Numbers Wellcome MS Arabic 409 and 410.
     
  • Al-Zahrawi: Al-Tasrif li-man ‘ajiza ‘an al-taalif. See ‘Cleanliness’ section.
     
  • Ben Miled, Ahmed 1987: Ibn Al Jazzar. Constantin l'Africain. Tunis: Salambô, 1987.
     
  • Ben Miled, Ahmed 1999 : Histoire de la médecine arabe en Tunisie, éd.. Beirut: Dar al-Gharb al-Islami.
     
  • Ibn al-Dhahabi: Kitab al-Ma’a, or The Book of Water. A copy of the manuscript is kept in Tlemcen, Algeria.Edeited version is published by Ministry of Heritage Oman.
     
  • Ibn al-Jazzar: Zad al-Musafir, or The Guide for the Traveller Going to Distant Countries or Traveller’s Provision, known in Latin as the Viaticum. Trans. and ed. by Gerrit Bos: Pub. London and New York, Kegan Paul International, 2000.
     
  • Ibn al-Nafis: Al-Shamil fi al-Tibb, or Comprehensive Book on the Art of Medicine. Istanbul, Koprulu Library, I. Kisim, MS 987/1; Vatican Library, MS 306; Bethesda, Maryland, The National Library of Medicine, MS A 43, MS A 44 and MS A 44/1. One manuscript copy of the Bethesda collection, entitled Kitab al-Mujaz fi al-Tibb, has a diagram of the eye and the visual system and a diagram of diagnosis by pulse.
     
  • Ibn al-Nafis 2004: Al-Mujaz Fi Al-Tibb, edited by A. al-Ezbawy. Cairo: Islamic Heritage Revival Committee, Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs, Ministry of Endowments, 4th edition.
     
  • Ibn al-Nafis, 2000: Al-Shamil Fi al-Sina’a al-Tibbiya, edited by Yusuf Zidan. Abu Dhabi (UAE): Al-Mujamma’ al-Thaqafi, 2 vols.
     
  • Quaritch, Bernard 1993: Arabic Science and Medicine: A Collection of Manuscripts and Early Printed Books Illustrating the Spread and Influence of Arabic Learning in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Bernard Quaritch catalogue 1186. Published in London, Introduction by Professor Charled Burnett (1993).

Top of the Page

Town Zone

Bookshops

  • Ben Aicha, Hedi 1986: “Mosques as libraries in Islamic civilization: 700-1400 A.D.” The Journal of Library History, vol. 21(2), pp. 253-260.
     
  • Diwan, Muhammad Rustam Ali 1978: "Muslim contribution to libraries during the medieval times", Islam and the Modern Age, vol. 9, pp. 19-34.
     
  • Dohaish, Abdul Latif 1987: “Growth and development of Islamic libraries”, Islamic Quarterly, vol. 31(4), pp. 217-229.
     
  • Ekere, F.C. 1983: "The contribution of Islam to the spread of literacy and development of libraries during the rise of Islam in the Middle East, North Africa and the West African Sudan," Library Scientist, vol. 10, pp. 101-19.
     
  • Elayyan, Ribhi Mustafa, 1990: "The history of the Arabic-Islamic libraries: 7th to 14th centuries", International Library Review, vol. 22, pp. 119-135.
     
  • Erunsal, Ismail E. 1985: “Medieval Ottoman Libraries”, ERDEM, vol. 1(3), pp. 745-754.
     
  • Hamadeh, Mohammed M. 1962: Islamic libraries during the Middle Ages. Ph.D. Thesis. The University of Chicago.
     
  • Ibn al-Nadim: Fihrist al-Ulum, or The Catalogue or Index of the Sciences. Suleymaniye Library, Sehid Ali Pasa, MS 1934.
     
  • Ibn al-Nadim 1970: The Fihrist of al-Nadim. A Tenth-Century Survey of Muslim Culture. English translation by Bayard Dodge. 2 vols. London/New York: Columbia University Press.
     
  • Ibn Al-Nadim 1997: Al-Fihrist, edited by I. Ramadan. Beirut: Dar El-Ma’rifa,2nd edition.
     
  • Ibn al-Nadim 1871-72: Kitab al-Fihrist, mit Anmerkungen hrsg. von Gustav Flügel. Leipzig: F.C.W. Vogel, 2 vols.
     
  • Imamuddin, S.M. 1983: Arabic Writing and Arab Libraries. London: Ta Ha Publishers.
     
  • Inayatullah, Shaikh 1938: "Bibliophilism in Medieval Islam", Islamic Culture, vol. 12(2), pp. 154-169.
     
  • Jamil, Muhammad Faris 1985: Islamic Wiraqah stationary during the early middle ages. Ph.D Thesis, Michigan State University.
     
  • Kabir, Mafizullah 1959: “Libraries and Academies During the Buwaiyhid Period: 946 to 1055 A.D.,” Islamic Culture, vol. 33(1), pp. 31-33.
     
  • Mackensen, R. S. 1932: "Four great libraries of medieval Baghdad", Library Quarterly, vol. 2(3), pp. 279-299.
     
  • Mackensen, R. S. 1934-35, 1935-36: "Background of the history of Moslem libraries", American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, vol. 5, pp. 114-125; vol. 52, pp. 22-33, 104-110.
     
  • Mackensen, R. S., 1935-36, 1936-37, 1937, 1939: "Arabic books and libraries in the Umayad period", American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, vol. 52, pp. 245-253; vol. 53, pp. 239-250; vol. 54, pp. 41-61; vol. 56, pp. 149-157.
     
  • Sibai, Mohamed Sibai 1984: An historical investigation of mosque libraries in Islamic life and culture. Ph.D. Thesis. Indiana University. [revised and published as: Mosque libraries. London: Mansell, 1987.
     
  • Smith, W.C. 1965: "Islamic Near East: Intellectual role of Librarianship", Library Quarterly, vol. 35, pp. 283-294. 
     
  • Taher, Mohamed 1997: Islamic Librarianship. Delhi: Anmol Publications, “Studies in Librarianship series”.
     
  • Thompson, Lawrence S. 1983: “Moslem libraries (Medieval)”, in Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science , vol. 36. New York: Marcel Dekker, pp. 363-377.
     
  • Wheeler, Brannon M. 1999: "Transmission of Muslim Knowledge: Past Traditions and new technologies", Symposium Research Papers, Islamic Information Sources. Riyadh.
     
  • Wilkins, Lesley 1994: “Islamic Libraries to 1920”, in Encyclopedia of Library History. Garland, pp. 296-306.

Public Baths

  • Defrémery, C.; Sanguinetti, B.R. 1853-58: Voyages d'Ibn Batoutah, Arabic and French text, 4 vols. Paris: Société Asiatique. Google books: Volume 1, Volume 2, Volume 3, Volume 4.
     
  • Dunn, Ross E. 2004: The Adventures of Ibn Battuta- A Muslim Traveler of the 14th Century. University of California.
     
  • Gibb, H. A. R., Beckingham, C.F. 1958, 1962, 1971, 1994, 2000: The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, A.D. 1325–1354 , 4 vols., translation and edition. London: Hakluyt Society.
     
  • Ibn Battûta 1982: Voyage. Traduction française C. Defremery et B. R. Sanguinetti (1858). Paris, François Maspero, coll. « La Découverte », 3 vols.s : vol. 1 : De l’Afrique du Nord à La Mecque ; vol. 2 : De la Mecque aux steppes russes, vol. 3 : Inde, Extrême-Orient, Espagne & Soudan.

Top of the Page

World Zone

Planet Earth

  • Al-Battani, Muhammad Ibn Jabir: Kitab al-Zij al-Sabi’, or De scientia stellarum – De numeris stellarum et motibus, or The Sabian Tables. Tunis, MS Zaytuna 2843. The Latin translation of Al-Battani’s book as Albatagnus, De scientia stellarum liber, cum aliquot additionibus Ioannis Regiomontani was published in Bologna, 1645.
     
  • Al-Battani 1997: Al-Battani (d. 929) sive Albatenii, Opus Astronomicum. Ad fidem codicis escurialensis. Arabice editum, latine versum, adnotationibus instructum… Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabish-Islamischen Wissenschaften. Reprint of the original edition (Milano: Osservatorio astronomico di Breva, 3 vols., 1899, 1903, 1907), by Carlo Nallino.
     
  • Al-Biruni: Kitab Ifrad al-Maqal fi amr al-zilal: Shadows or Gnomonics. Patna (India), Oriental Public Library at Bankipore, MS 2468/36.
     
  • Al-Biruni: Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi fi’l-hay’a wa’l-nujum, or Mas’udic Canon on Astronomy and Astrology. Suleymaniye Library, Carullah, MS 1498.
     
  • Al-Khujandi: Risala fi tashih al-mayl wa ‘ard al-balad, or Treatise on Determining the Declination and Latitude of Cities with More Accuracy. Beirut, Greek Orthodox School Library, MS 364/1.
     
  • Ibn Hazm 1982: Al-Fasl fi al-Millal wa-‘l-ahwa’ wa-’l-nihal, or Conclusion on the Nations, edited by Muhammad Ibrahim Nasir, Abdurrahman Umayra. Jeddah: Maktabatu Ukaz. Prior edition in Cairo, 1317–21 H (1899–1903), 5 vols.
     
  • Ibn Yunus 1804: Al-Zij al-Hakimi, or The Hakemite Tables (not all of which seems to have survived). Edited and translated into French in part by C. Caussin: Le livre de la grande table Hakemite par Ebn Jounis (Paris, 1804), pp. 16-240.

Surveying

  • Bruin, Fr. 1970: Surveying and Surveying Instruments being chapters 26, 27, 29 and 30 of the Book on Finding Hidden Water by Abu Bakr Muhammad al-Karaji. Beyrouth.
     
  • Hill, Donald R. 1993: Islamic Science and Engineering. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
     
  • Lewis, Michael J. T. 2001: Surveying Instruments of Greece and Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
     
  • Maslama al-Majriti: Rutbat Al-Hakim, or The Rank of the Wise. Istanbul, Ali Emiri-Arabi, MS 2836/2.
     
  • Sesiano, Jacques 1996 : Le Kitab al-misaha d'Abu Kamil." Centaurus vol. 38: pp. 1-21.

Earth Science

Natural Phenomena

  • Al-Biruni: Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi fi ’l-hay’a wa-’l-nujum. See ‘Planet Earth’ section.
     
  • Al-Kindi: Risala fi ’l-‘illa al-fa’ila li-’l-madd wa’l-jazr, or Treatise on the Efficient Cause of the Tidal Flow and Ebb. Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS 877/12.
     
  • Al-Kindi: Risala fi ‘illat al-lawn al-azraq alladhhi yura fi ’l-jaww fi jihat al-sama, or Treatise on the azure colour which is seen in the air in the direction of the heavens and is thought to be the colour of the heavens. Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya, MS 4832/2.
     
  • Ibn al-Haytham: Kitab al-Manazir, or Book of Optics. See ‘Vision and Cameras’ section.
     
  • Ibn Hazm: Al-Millal wa-al-nihal. See ‘Planet Earth’ section.

Geography

  • Al-Bakri: Kitab al-Masalik wa’l-Mamalik, or Book of Highways and of Kingdoms. Cambridge University Library, UK has the original text of the book by Abu Ubayd Al Bakri (1040–1094). The book also contains translations in Latin and Polish, published in 1946. Library/Call number 590:01.b.17.1.
     
  • Al-Biruni: Alberuni’s India: An Account of the Religion, Philosophy, Literature, Geography, Chronology, Astronomy, Customs, Laws, and Astrology of India about A.D. 1030, vol. I-II. Trans. by Edward C Sachau. Edited by Fuat Sezgin. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften, 1993.
     
  • Al-Biruni: The Determination of the Coordinates of Positions for the Correction of Distances Between Cities: A Translation from the Arabic of Al-Biruni’s kitab tahdid nihayat al-amakin litashih masafat al-masakin. Ed. by Fuat Sezgin; pub. by Mazen Amawi, Carl Ehrig-Eggert, Eckhard Neubauer. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften, 1992.
     
  • Al-Idrisi: Nuzhat al-Mushtaq fi ‘khtirak al-Afaq. See ‘Dams’ section.
     
  • Al-Muqaddasi: Ahsan al-Taqasim fi Ma‘rifat al-Aqalim. See ‘Libraries’ section.
     
  • Ibn al-Nadim: Fihrist’al-Ulum. See ‘Bookshops’ section.
     
  • Ibn Jubayr: Rihlat Ibn Jubayr. See ‘Hospital Development’ section.
     
  • Mahmud Kashgharli: Divanu Lugat-it-Turk, or Compendium of Turkish Dialects. Istanbul, 1915-1917.
     
  • Al-Jahiz: Kitab al-Buldan. Baghdad: Matbaat al-Hukumah, 1970.
     
  • Al-Khwarizmi 1926: Kitab Surat al-Ardh min al-mudun wa’l-jibal wa’l-bihar wa’l-jaza’ir wa-’l-anhar, or Book of Geography: A Picture Book of the Earth, Cities, Mountains, Seas, Islands, and Rivers or The Form of the Earth. German translation entitled Das “Kitab Surat al-ard” des Abu Ga’far Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khuwarizmi, herausg. Unikum des Bibliothèque de l’Université Régionale de Strasburg (Cod. 4247) von Hans v. Mzik. Wien.
     
  • Ibn Hawqal, Muhammad 1938: Kitab surat al-Ard (Bibliotheca geographorum Arabicorum). Leiden: Brill.
     
  • Al-Ya’qubi: Kitab al-Buldan, or Book of Countries. Istanbul University, Islam Arastirmalari Library, MS 1262, and Yale University Library, MS Geography, Folio B4737.
     
  • Yaqut 1955-57: Mu’jam al-Buldan, or Dictionary of Countries. Beirut, 5 vols., 1374-76 H.

Maps

  • Al-Idrisi: Nuzhat al-Mushtaq fi ‘khtirak al- Afaq. See ‘Dams’ section.
     
  • Brentjes, Sonja 2009: “Cartography in Islamic Societies”, in International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, vol. 1, edited by R. Kitchin and N. Thrit, Oxford: Elsevier, pp. 414-427.
     
  • Edson, Evelyn; Savage-Smith, Emilie 2004: Savage-Smith, Emilie. ed. Medieval Views of the Cosmos. Oxford: Bodleian Library.
     
  • Piri Re’is 1988: Kitab-i Bahriye. Istanbul, Koprulu Ahmed Pasa, MSS 171, 172.
     
  • Piri Re’is 1988: Kitab-i Bahriye, or The Book of Sea Lore or The Book of the Mariner or The Naval Handbook. Ed. by Ertugrul Zekai Okte; transcription Vahit Cabuk; Turkish text Vahit Cabuk, Tulay Duran; English text Robert Bragner. Ankara: Culture and Tourism Ministry.
     
  • King, David A. 1999: World-Maps for Finding the Direction and Distance to Mecca: Innovation and Tradition in Islamic Science. Leiden: Brill/London: Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation.
     
  • King, D.A 1997: "Two Iranian World Maps for for Finding the Direction and Distance to Mecca", Imago Mundi. The International Journal for the History of Cartography vol. 49, pp. 62-82.
     
  • King, D. A, & Lorch, R. 1992: "Qibla Charts, Qibla Maps, and Related Instruments." In: The History of Cartography; vol. 2, book 1: Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies. Edité par J.B. Harley et D. Woodward. Chicago/ London: University of Chicago Press, pp. 189-205.
     
  • Sezgin, Fuat 2000: Geschichte Des Arabischen Schrifttums X–XII: Mathematische Geographie und Kartographie im Islam und ihr Fortleben im Abendland, Historische Darstellung, 3 vols. Frankfurt am Main: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften an der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität.

Travellers and Explorers

  • Abu al-Fida’: Taqwim al-Buldan, or Survey of Countries. Library of the Topkapi Palace Museum, Ahmed III, MS 2855.
     
  • Al-Biruni 1992: Tahdidu nihayat al-amakin li’t-tashihi masafat al-masakin. Ed. by Fuat Sezgin et. al., Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.
     
  • Flowers, Stephen E. 1998: Ibn Fadlan's Travel-Report: As It Concerns the Scandinavian Rüs. Smithville, Texas: Rûna-Raven.
     
  • Frähn, Christian Martin 1823: Die ältesten arabischen Nachrichten über die Wolga-Bulgaren aus Ibn-Foszlan's Reiseberichte. Saint Petersbourg: Mémoires de L'Académie Impériale des Sciences, VIth series.
     
  • Frye, Richard N. (editor) 2005: Ibn Fadlan's Journey To Russia: A Tenth Century Traveler From Baghdad to the Volga River. Markus Wiener Publishers.
     
  • Ibn Battuta: Al-Rihla. See ‘Public Baths’ section.
     
  • Ibn Fadlan 1988: Voyages chez les Bulgares de la Volga. French translation by Marius Canard Paris: Sindbad, reeditied 1999.
     
  • Ibn Fadhlan 1994: Reisebericht. Rihlat Ibn Fadlan. Edited and translated into German by Ahmed Zeki Validi Togan. (Deutsche Morgenla¨ndische Gesellschaft, Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgendlandes. XXIV, 3.) Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus, 1939. Reprinted at Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften ("Islamic Geography", vol. 168).
     
  • Ibn Jubayr: Rihlat Ibn Jubayr. See ‘Hospital Development’ section.
     
  • Ibn Khurradadhbih 1865: Al-Masalik wal Mamalik, or Book of Roads and Provinces, or Le livre des routes et des provinces, edited by Casimir Barbier de Meynard, Journal asiatique, vol. 6, pp. 5–127. Reprinted by Fuat Sezgin, 1992.
     
  • Al-Muqaddasi: Ahsan al-Taqasim fi Ma‘rifat al-Aqalim. See ‘Libraries’ section.
     
  • Al-Ya’qubi: Kitab al-Buldan. See ‘Geography’ section.
     
  • Sezgin, F. et al. 1987: Magmu' fi ‘l-gughrafiya: tubi'a bi-‘t-taswir ‘an makhtut al-Maktaba ar-Radawiya fi Mahhad 5229. Mimma allafahu Ibn-al-Faqih wa-Ibn-Fadhlan wa Abu Dulaf al-Khazraji. Collection of Geographical Works by Ibn al-Faqih, Ibn Fadlan, Abu Dulaf Al-Khazraji. Edited by Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften, (Series ’Uyu¯n at-turath, vol. 43).
     
  • Yaqut: Mu’jam al-Buldan. See ‘Geography’ section.

Navigation

  • Al-Masudi: Muruj al-dhahab wa Maadin al-Jawhar. See ‘Agricultural Revolution’ section.
     
  • Al-Qibjaqi: Kitab Kanz al-Tujjār fi ma’rifat al-Ahjar, or The Book of Treasure for Merchants who Seek Knowledge of Stones. The book was written in 1282 and dedicated to Sultan Qalaun. It is referred to and discussed in B. A. Rosenfeld and E Ihsanoglu, Mathematicians, Astronomers and Other Scholars of Islamic Civilisation and their Works (7th-19th c.). Istanbul: IRCICA, 2003, No. 649.
     
  • Ibn Majid, Shihab al-Din Ahmad 1981: Arab Navigation in the Indian Ocean before the Coming of the Portuguese: Being a Translation of ‘Kitab al-fawa’id fi usul al-bahr wa 'l-qawa’id’ of Ahmad b. Majid al-Najdi. Translated by G.R. Tibbets. London: The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
     
  • Nadwi, Allama Syed Sulaiman 1966: The Arab Navigation. Translation by Syed Sabahuddin Abdurahman. Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf.
     
  • Homsi H. 2001: "Navigation and Ship-building”, in Al-Hassan, Ahmad Y. & Iskandar, Yusuf & Zaki, Albert & Maqbul, Ahmad (éditeurs). The Different Aspects of Islamic Culture. Vol. IV: Science and Technology in Islam, Parts I-II. Paris: UNESCO.
     
  • Piri Re’is: Kitab i-Bahriye. See ‘Maps’ section.

Weaponry

  • Al-Rammah: Kitab Al-Furusiyya wa Al-Manasib Al-Harbiyya, or The Book of Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices. It is also called Tuhfat al-Mujahidin fi al-Amal bi’l-Mayadin. Istanbul, Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya, MS 3799 and Nurosmaniye Library, MS 2294.
     
  • Al-Rammah, Najm Al-Din Hassan 1998: Kitab Al-Furusiyya wa Al-Manasib Al-Harbiyya (Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices). Edited by Ahmad Yusuf Al-Hassan, Aleppo: University of Aleppo publications.
     
  • Ibn Aranbughā al-Zardkāsh 1985: Kitab al aniq fi 'l-manjaniq. Edited by Ihsan Hindi. Aleppo: Publications of the Institute for the History of Arabic Science.
     
  • Ibn Aranbughā 2004: Ibn Aranbughā al-Zardkāsh (fl. 774-775/1373): Armoury Manual. Kitāb anīq fī l-manājnīq. Edited by F. Sezgin. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften. Reproduction from MS Istanbul, Library of the Topkapi Palace Museum, Ahmed III 3469 (fols. 35a–59a).
     
  • Partington, J.R. 1999: A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder, The John Hopkins University Press.
     
  • Mansour, Mohamed 2002: Muslim Rocket Technology.
     
  • Scanlon, George T. 2012: A Muslim Manual of War. Being Tafrij al-kurub fi tadbir al-hurub by ‘Umar ibn Ibrahim al-Awsi al-Ansari. Edited and translated by George T Scanlon; Foreword by Carole Hillenbrand. Cairo: The American University at Cairo. First edition 1961.
     
  • Terzioglu, Arslan 2007: Attempts of Flight, Automatic Machines, Submarines and Rocket Technology in Turkish History.

Social Science and Economy

Post and Mail

  • Al-Nuwayri: Nihayat al-Arab fi Funun al-Adab. See ‘Water Management’ section.

Top of the Page

Universe Zone

Astronomy

  • Al-Battani: Al-Zij al-Sabi. See ‘Planet Earth’ section.
     
  • Al-Biruni 1998: Kitab al-Tafhim li-awa’il sina’at al-tanjim, or The Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astrology, translated and edited by R. Ramsay Wright. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.
     
  • Al-Farghani: Kitab fi Harakat al-Samawiyah wa Jawami Ilm al Nujum, or Compendium of Astronomy. Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya, MS 2843/2.
     
  • Al-Farghani and Al-Battani: Texts and Studies. Collected and Reprinted by Fuat Sezgin et al. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften, 1998.
     
  • Ibn al-Shatir al-Muwaqqit: Kitab Nihayat al-sul fi Tashih al-Usul, or Limit of Desire in Correcting Principles. Cairo, Dar al-Kutub, Taymur, MS Riyada 154.
     
  • Ibn Yunus: Al-Zij al-Kabir al-Hakimi, or the Hakemite Tables. SeePlanet Earth’ section.
     
  • Al-Zarqali: Kitab al-a’mal bi’l-safiha al-Zijiyya, or Book of Operations by Means of Tympanum of Zijes. Suleymaniye Library, Esad Efendi, MS 2671/1.
     
  • Carmody, Francis J., Alfragani differentie in quibusdam collectis scientie astrorum. Berkeley, 1943.
     
  • Goldstein, Bernard R. 1971: Al‐Bitrūjī: On the Principles of Astronomy. 2 Vols. New Haven: Yale University Press.
     
  • King, David A. 1972: “The Astronomical Works of Ibn Yūnus.” PhD. dissertation, Yale University.
     
  • King, D. A., 1973: “Ibn Yūnus' Very Useful Tables for Reckoning Time by the Sun.” Archive for History of Exact Sciences 10, 1973: 342–394. (Reprinted in King, Islamic Mathematical Astronomy, IX. London: Variorium Reprints, 1986; 2nd rev. ed., Aldershot: Variorum, 1993.)
     
  • King, D. A., 1983: Mathematical Astronomy in Medieval Yemen - A Bio-Bibliographical Survey, (Publications of the American Research Center in Egypt, Catalogs, vol. 4). Malibu, California: Undena Publications.
     
  • King, D. A. 1986: Islamic Mathematical Astronomy, London: Variorum, 1986, 2nd rev. edn., Aldershot: Variorum, 1993.
     
  • King, D. A. 1987: Islamic Astronomical Instruments, London: Variorum, 1987, repr. Aldershot: Variorum, 1995.
     
  • King, D. A. 1990: "Between Europe and China: Aspects of the Traditions of the Lands of Islam". In: Dall'Europa alla Cina: Contributti per una storia dell'astronomia. Edité par I. Iannaccone et A. Tamburello. Napoli: Universita degli studi "Federico II"/ Istituto universitario orientale, pp. 55-66.
     
  • King, D. A. 1993: Astronomy in the Service of Islam, Aldershot: Variorum, 1993.
     
  • King, D. A. 1999: "Islamic Astronomy", in C. Walker, Astronomy before the telescope, British Museum Press, pp. 143–174.
     
  • King, D. A. 1999: "Aspects of Fatimid Astronomy: From Hard-Core Mathematical Astronomy to Architectural Orientations in Cairo." In: L'Egypte Fatimide: son art et son histoire. Edité par Marianne Barrucand. Paris: Presses de l'Université de Paris-Sorbonne, pp. 497-517.
     
  • King, D. A. 2003: Astronomy in the Baghdad of the Caliphs: Lecture - Bibliography.
     
  • King D. A. 2004. In Synchrony with the Heavens. Studies in Astronomical Timekeeping and Instrumentation in Medieval Islamic Civilization. Vol. I: The Call of the Muezzin (Studies I-IX); vol. II: Instruments of Mass Calculation (Studies X-XVIII). Brill: Leiden.
     
  • Puig, Roser 1986: Al‐Šakkāziyya: Ibn al‐Naqqāš al‐Zarqālluh. Edición, traducción y estudio. Barcelona.
     
  • Rosen, Edward 1985: "The Dissolution of the Solid Celestial Spheres", Journal of the History of Ideas, vol. 46, pp. 13–31.
     
  • Saliba, George 1979: "The First Non-Ptolemaic Astronomy at the Maraghah School", Isis, vol. 70, pp. 571–576.
     
  • Saliba, G. 1990: The Astronomical Work of Mu'ayyadal-Din al-'Urdi (d. 1266): A Thirteenth Century Reform of Ptolemaic Astronomy, Beirut: Markaz Dirasat al-Wahda al-'Arabiya.
     
  • Saliba, G. 1993: “Al-Qushji's Reform of the Ptolemaic Model for Mercury,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, vol. 3, pp. 161-203.
     
  • Saliba, G. 1994: A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam. New York: New York University Press.
     
  • Saliba, G. 1994: “A Sixteeenth-Century Arabic Critique of Ptolemaic Astronomy: The Work of Shams al-Din al-Khafri,” Journal for the History of Astronomy, vol. 25, pp. 15-38.
     
  • Saliba, G. 1994: “Early Arabic Critique of Ptolemaic Cosmology: A Ninth-Century Text on the Motion of the Celestial Spheres,” Journal for the History of Astronomy, vol. 25, pp. 115-141.
     
  • Saliba, G. 1996: “Arabic Planetary Theories after the Eleventh Century AD,” Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, edited by R. Rashed. London: Routledge,pp. 58-127.

Observatories

  • Abu Mansur: Al-Zij al Mumtahan, or The Verified Tables. Escorial, Library of the St Laurentius Monastery, II, MS 927.
     
  • Dizer, M. (editor) 1980: Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Observatories in Islam (19-23 Sept., 1977). Istanbul: Millî Egitim Basımevi.
     
  • FSTC Research Team 2001: Astronomical Observatories in the Classical Islamic Culture.
     
  • Krisciunas, Kevin 1992: "The Legacy of Ulugh Beg," Bulletin of the Association for the Advancement of Central Asian Research, vol. 5, no. 1, Spring 1992, pp. 3-6. Reprinted in in Central Asian Monuments, edited by Hasan B. Paksoy, Istanbul: Isis Press, 1992, pp. 95-103 (for an online version click here).
     
  • Sayili, Aydin 1981: The Observatory in Islam. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basimevi, Publications of the Turkish Historical Society. Réimpression New York: Arno Press.
     
  • Sayili, Aydin 2005: Observatories In Islam.
     
  • Tekeli, Sevim 2008: The Instruments of Istanbul Observatory.

Astronomical Instruments

  • Al-Battani: Al-Zij al-Sabi. See ‘Planet Earth’ section.
     
  • Al-Halabi: Bughyat al-Tulab fil’amal bi’l rub al-astrulab, or Aims of Pupils on Operations with the Quadrant of Astrolabe. Leiden, University Library 1001/8.
     
  • Al-Hamawi: Ad Durr al-Gharib fil amal bi dairat al-tayyib, or Rare Pearls on Operations with the Circle for finding Sines. Leiden, University Library 187b/4.
     
  • ‘Izz al-Din al-Wafa’i: Al-Nujum al-Zahirat fi amal bi’l rub al-Muqantarat, or Brilliant Stars on Operations with the Almucantar Quadrant. Suleymaniye Library, Fatih 3448.
     
  • Jabir ibn Aflah: Kitab al-Hai’a, or Book of Cosmology.
     
  • Jabir ibn Aflah: Islah al Majisti, or Correction of the Almagest of Ptolemy. Berlin, Staatsbibliothek- State Library 5653.
     
  • Al-Khujandi: Al-Talwih li-Asrar al-Tanqih. See ‘Hospital Development’ section.
     
  • Shihab al-Din al-Hamawi: Masail Handasya, or Geometrical Problems. Cairo, Riyada 694.
     
  • Al-Sufi: Suwar al-Kawakib al-Thabit, or Book of Fixed Stars. A 17th-century Arabic copy is kept at Suleymaniye Library, Fatih 3422, and the Library of Congress, USA.
     
  • Taqi al-Din: Turuq al-Saniyya fi al-Alat al-Ruhaniyya. See ‘Raising Water’ section.
     
  • Nasir al-Din al-Tusi’s Memoir on Astronomy ‛al-Tadhkira fi ‘ilm al-hay’a’. 2 vols. Edited and trandslated by F. J. Ragep. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1993.

Astrolabe

  • Al-Biruni: Al-Isti’ab fi San’at al-Usturlabe. Turkey, Diyarbakir Public Library, 403/3.
     
  • Al-Bitruji: Kitab-al-Hay’ah or Kitab al-murta’ish fi’l-hay’a, or Book of Cosmology. Library of the Topkapi Palace Museum, 3302/1. A 16th-century Latin translation of the manuscript is kept at Cambridge University Library, UK.
     
  • Al-Farghani: Kitab fi san’at al-astrolabe. Turkey, Kastamonu Public Library, 794-5.
     
  • Al-Farghani: Kitab fi Harakat al-Samawiyah wa Jawami Ilm al Nujum. See ‘Astronomy’ section.
     
  • Ibn Isa: Risala fi al-Usturlab. Vatican Library, Codici Borgiani Arabi 217/3.
     
  • Jamal al-Din al-Tariqi: Risala fi ma’rifat al-Taqwim wa ma’rifat al-usturlab wa mawaqit wa ‘ilm ahkam al-Nujum. Vatican Library 1398/3.
     
  • Masha’Allah: Al-Kitab al-ma’ruf bi’l-sabi’ wa-‘l ishrin, or The Book Known as Twenty-Seventh, or De scientia motus orbis, Massahalae de scientia motus orbis. Norimbergae, 1504; and Massahallae de elementis et orbibus coelisitibus. Norimbergae, 1549.
     
  • Masha’Allah: Kitab san’at al-asturlabat wa’l-‘amal biha, or Book on the Construction of Astrolabes and their Operations, or De compositione et utilitate astrolabii.
     
  • Al-Zarqali: Kitab al-a’mal bi’l-safiha al-Zijiyya. See ‘Astronomy’ section.

Armillary Sphere

  • Dawud ibn Sulayman: Kitab dhat al-halaq, or Book on the Armillary Sphere. Cairo, Miqat, MS 969/1a.
     
  • Jabir ibn Aflah: Islah al-Majisti. See ‘Astronomical Instruments’ section.
     
  • Savage-Smith, Emilie 1985. Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their History, Construction, and Use. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Lunar Formations

  • Abu al-Fida’: Mukhtasar Tarikh Al-Bashar, or Concise History of Humans. Turkey, Corum Hasan Pasa Public Library 1178.
     
  • Abu al-Fida’: Taqwim al-Buldan. See Travellers and Explorers’ section.
     
  • Masha’Allah: Al-Kitab al-ma’ruf bi’l-sabi’ wa-‘l ishrin. See ‘Astrolabe’ section.
     
  • Masha’Allah: Kitab san’at al-asturlabat wa’l-‘amal biha. See ‘Astrolabe’ section.
     
  • Al-Sufi: Suwar al-Kawakib al-Thabit. See ‘Astronomical Instruments’ section.
     
  • Al-Tusi: Tarcama-i Kitab-i Suwar al-kawakib. Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya 2595.
     
  • Al-Tusi: Al-Tadhkira fi al-Hay’a. Vatican Library 319/1.
     
  • Ulugh Beg: Al-Zij, or Astronomical Tables. Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya 2692.

Stars

  • Al-Sufi: Suwar al-Kawakib al-Thabit. SeeAstronomical Instruments’ section.
     
  • Kunitsch, Paul 1959: Arabische Sternnamen in Europa. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
     
  • Kunitsch, P. 1977: "On the Medieval Arabic Knowledge of the Star Alpha Eridiani." Journal for the History of Arabic Sciences vol. 1: pp. 263-267.
     
  • Kunitsch, P. 1978: "Der Sternhimmel in den ‛Dichterischen Vergleichen der Andalus-Araber’." Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlindischen Gesellschaft, vol. 128: pp. 238-251.
     
  • Kunitsch, P. 1983: Über eine anwa’-Tradition mit bisher unbekannten Sternnamen. München: Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.
     
  • Kunitsch, P. 1986: "The Astronomer Abu 'l-Husayn al-Sufi and his Book on the Constellations." Zeitschrift für Geschichte der arabisch-islamischen Wissenschaften, vol. 3, pp. 56-81.
     
  • Kunitsch, P. 1989: The Arabs and the Stars. Texts and Traditions on the Fixed Stars and their Influence in Medieval Europe. London: Variorum Reprints.
     
  • Kunitsch, P. 1994:"Abd al-Malik Ibn Habib's Book on the Stars." Zeitschrift für Geschichte der arabisch-islamischen Wissenschaften, vol. 9, pp. 161-194.
     
  • Kunitsch, P. 2004. Stars and Numbers: Astronomy and Mathematics in the Medieval Arab and Western Worlds. Variorum Collected Studies. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Flight

  • Al-Firdawsi: Shahnameh, or Book of Kings. Ankara National Library, MS B 530.
     
  • Ibn Jubayr: Rihlat Ibn Jubayr. See ‘Hospital Development’ section.
     
  • E. Lévi-Provençal, "‘Abbās b. Firnās b. Wardūs, Abu 'l-Kāsim", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd edition, Leiden (print version: volume I, p. 10).
     
  • Ibn Hayyan 1937: Al-Muqtabis, edited by Būlus Kitnar. Paris, Series "Textes arabes relatifs a l'histoire de l'Occident musulman", N° 3).
     
  • Ibn Hayyan 1965: Al-Muqtabis, edited by Abd al-Rahman al-Hajji. Beirut.
     

Top of the Page

Click here for Academic Sources...

Click here for Academic References...

Click her for a list of Further Reading...

Click here for a list of Image Credits...

Click here for Organisations and People involved...