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Further Reading


  • Abattouy, Mohammed & Renn, Jürgen & Weinig, Paul (editors) 2001: Science in Context (Cambridge University Press) vol. 14, no1-2. Special double issue on Intercultural transmission of scientific knowledge in the Middle Ages: Graeco-Arabic-Latin.
  • Abattouy, Mohammed (editor) 2007: La science dans les sociétés islamiques: approches historiques et perspectives d'avenir. Casablanca: Foundation of King Abdulaziz.
  • Abattouy, Mohammed 2007: L'Histoire des sciences arabes classiques: une bibliographie sélective commentée. Tarikh al-‘ulum al-‘arabiya al-klasikiya: Bibliughrafia mukhtara. Casablanca: Foundation of King Abdulaziz.
  • Al-Khalili, Jim 2008: Science and Rationalism in 9th Century Baghdad
  • Al-Khalili, Jim 2009: Remembering the Language of History and Science: When the World Spoke Arabic.
  • Al-Khalili, Jim 2009: It's Time to Herald the Arabic Science That Prefigured Darwin and Newton
  • Al-Khalili, Jim 2010: Pathfinders: The Golden Age of Arabic Science. London: Allen Lane.
  • Al-Qurashi, Diya Al-Din Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Al-Shafii known as Ibn Al-Ukhuwwa 1938: The Ma’alim Al-Qurba fi Ahkam al-Hisba. Edited with abstract of contents, glossary and indices by Reuben Levy. Cambridge/London: Cambridge University Press / Luzac & Co.
  • Arabick Roots 2011: 'Arabick Roots' of science and medicine exhibition. An exhibition of manuscripts and letters of early founders of the Royal Society revealing their connections with Arabic learning. London, The Royal Society, London, August-Novemeber 2011. See also on the website of The Royal Society in London Arabick Roots.
  • Arabick Roots, Arabic Knowledge 2011: The exhibition catalogue (29MB PDF) on the website of The Royal Society.
  • Berggren J. Lennart 1993: "Historical Reflections on Scientific Knowledge: the Case of Medieval Islam." In: Knowledge Across Cultures: Universities East and West. Edité par Ruth Hayhoe. Hubei: Hubei Educational Press/OISE Press, pp. 137-153.
  • Brockelman, Carl 1943-49: Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur. 3 vols. plus 2 supplements. Leiden: Brill, 3rd edition.
  • Burnett, Charles 2008: On the origin and development of the college in Islam and the West.
  • Burnett, Charles 2007: The Appreciation of Arabic Science and Technology in the Middle Ages.
  • Burnett, Charles 2009: Mont Saint-Michel or Toledo: Greek or Arabic Sources for Medieval European Culture?
  • Carra de Vaux, Bernard. Les penseurs de l’Islam. 5 vols. Paris: Geunther, 1921-26.
  • Casulleras, Josep & Samsó, Julio (editors), From Baghdad to Barcelona. Studies in the Islamic Exact Sciences in Honour of Professor Juan Vernet. 2 vols. Barcelona: Instituto "Millás Vallicrosa" de Historia de la Ciencia Arabe - Anuari de Filologia(Universitat de Barcelona) XIX.b-2, 1996.
  • Dallal, Ahmad 1999: "Science, Medicine, and Technology: The Making of a Scientific Culture." The Oxford History of Islam. Edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 155-213.
  • Dallal, A. 2007: Tolerance or Compatibility? The Search for a Qur'anic Paradigm of Science.
  • Djebbar, Ahmed 2001 : Une histoire de la science arabe. Entretiens avec Jean Rosmorduc. Paris: Editions du Seuil.
  • Djebbar, Ahmed 2005 : L'âge d'or des sciences arabes. Paris: Editions Le Pommier/La Cité des sciences et de l'industrie.
  • Djebbar, A. 2008 : Mathematics in the Medieval Maghrib: General Survey on Mathematical Activities in North Africa.
  • Endress, Gerhard 1987: "Die wissenschaftliche Literatur." In: Grundriß der Arabischen Philologie, edited by Helmut Gätje. Band II: Literatur wissenschaft. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, pp. 399-506.
  • FSTC Research Team 2011: Proceedings of the Academic Conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World.
  • FSTC Research Team 2011: Proceedings of the Muslim Heritage Awareness Group Meeting.
  • Gillispie, Charles (editor) 1970-90: Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 18 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Contains numerous entries on the scientists of Islam.
  • Hamilton, Michael M. 2007: Lost History: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Scientists, Thinkers, and Artists. Washington: National Geographic.
  • Hamilton, Alastair, Maurits van den Boogert and Bart Westerweel (eds) 2005: The Republic of Letters and the Levant, Intersections series. Leiden: Brill.
  • Hartner, Willy 1970: "La science dans le monde de l'islam après la chute du Califat." Studia Islamica, vol. 31, pp. 135-151.
  • Hassan, al-, Ahmad Y. & Iskandar, Yusuf & Zaki, Albert & Maqbul, Ahmad (editors) 2001: The Different Aspects of Islamic Culture. Vol. IV: Science and Technology in Islam, Parts I-II. Paris: UNESCO.
  • Hasse, Dag Nikolaus 2008: Influence of Arabic and Islamic Philosophy on the Latin West.
  • Hayes John (editor) 1983: The Genius of Arab Civilization: Source of Renaissance. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
  • Hogendijk, J.P. & Sabra, A.I. [Abdelhamid Ibrahim] (editors) 2003: The Enterprise of Science in Islam. New Perspectives. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press.
  • [Ibn al-Haytham] 998: Al-Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham,(d. 430-1039). Texts and Studies. Collected and reprinted by F. Sezgin et al. 2 vols. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschicte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenchaften.
  • Ibn Khaldun 1967: The Muqaddimah. An Introduction to History. English translation by F. Rosenthal. 3 vols. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967.
  • Ibn Sina, Al-Husayn Ibn Abdullah 1956 : Poème de la Médicine, Urguza fi al-tibb (Cantica Avicennae), Texte Arabe, Traduction Francaise, Traduction Latine du XIIIe siècle, avec Introduction, notes, et index, établi et présenté par Henri Jahier et Abdul-Kader Noureddine, Paris: Les Belles Lettres.
  • Ihsanoglu, Ekmeleddin (editor) 1984: Catalogue of Islamic Medical Manuscripts (in Arabic, Turkish, Persian) in the Libraries of Turkey. Prepared by Ramazan Sesen, Cemil Akpinar and Cevat Izgi. Istanbul: IRCICA.
  • Ihsanoglu, Ekmeleddin (editor) 1997: Osmanli Astronomi Literatürü Tarihi. History of Astronomy Literature during the Ottoman Period. Prepared by Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, Ramazan Sesen, Cevat Izgi, Cemil Akpinar and Ihsan Fazlioglu. 2 vols. Istanbul: IRCICA.
  • Ihsanoglu, Ekmeleddin (editor) 1999: Osmanli Matematik Literatürü Tarihi. History of Mathematical Literature during the Ottoman Period. Prepared by Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, Ramazan Shishin and Cevat Izgi. 2 vols. Istanbul: IRCICA.
  • Ihsanoglu, Ekmeleddin & Günergun, Feza (editors) 2000: Science in Islamic Civilizatio. Proceedings of the "Science Institutions in Islamic Civilization" and "International Symposia Science and Technology in the Turkish and Islamic World." Istanbul: IRCICA.
  • Kahn, A.S. 1982: A Bibliography of the Works of Abu 'l-Rayhan al-Biruni. New Delhi.
  • Kennedy Edward S. 1970: "The Arabic Heritage in the Exact Sciences." Al-Abhath (Beyrouth: The American University of Beirut) vol. 23, pp. 327-44.
  • Kennedy, E. S, Colleagues and Former Students 1983: Studies in the Islamic Exact Sciences. Edited by D.A. King and M.H. Kennedy. Beirut: The American University of Beirut.
  • Matvievskaia, Galina P., Rozenfeld, Boris A. 1983: Matematiki i astronomi musulmanskogo srednevekovya i ikh trudi (VII-XVII vv). 3 vols. Moscou: Nauka.
  • Mercier, Raymond 1994: "English Orientalists and Mathmatical Astronomy", in G. Russell (edit.), The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England, op. cit., pp. 158-214.
  • Mieli, Aldo 1938 : La Science arabe et son rôle dans l'évolution scientifique mondiale". Leiden: Brill, 2nd ed. 1966.
  • Morelon, Régis & Hasnawi, Ahmed (editors) 2004: De Zénon d'Élée à Poincaré. Recueil d'études en hommage à Roshdi Rashed, Louvain/Paris: Peeters.
  • Nasr, Seyyed Hosein 1987: Science and Civilization in Islam. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968. REPRINTS/ New York: New American Library, 1968, 1970; Cambridge: The Islamic Texts Society.
  • Quaritch, Bernard (editor) 1993: Catalogue of Arabic Science and Medicine: A Collection of Manuscripts and Early Printed Books Illustrating the Spread and Influence of Arabic Learning in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Volume 1186 of the Bernard Quaritch catalogue. Introduction by Professor Charles Burnett. London: Bernard Quaritch.
  • Rashed, Roshdi (editor) 1996: Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science. Edited by Roshdi Rashed with the collaboration of Régis Morelon. London/New York: Routledge, 3 vols; vol. 1: Astronomy - Theoretical and Applied; vol. 2: Mathematics and the Physical Sciences; vol. 3: Technology, Alchemy and Life Sciences.
  • Roshdi Rashed 2008: Promoting Science-based Cultural Dialogue among Civilizations.
  • Rosenfeld, Boris A. & Ihsanoglu, Ekmeleddin 2003: Mathematicians, Astronomers, and Other Scholars of Islamic Civilization and Their Works (7th-19th Centuries). Istanbul: IRCICA.
  • Russell, Güll (editor) 1994: The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England'. Leiden: Brill.
  • Sabra, A. I. 1996: "Situating Arabic Science: Locality versus Essence." Isis (Chicago University Press), vol. 87: pp. 654-670.
  • Said, Hakim Mohammed (editor) 1969: "Ibn Al-Haitham". Proceedings of the celebrations of 1000th anniversary Held under the auspices of Hamdard National Foundation, Pakistan. Karachi: Times Press.
  • Said, Hakim Mohammed 1979: Al-Biruni: Commemorative Volume. Proceedings of the international congress held in Pakistan on the occasion of millenary of Abu´ al-Raihan Muhamad Ibn Ahmad al-Biruni(November 26, 1973 thru December 12, 1973). Karachi: Times Press.
  • Saliba, George 1989: “A Medieval Arabic Reform of the Ptolemaic Lunar Model,” Journal for the History of Astronomy,, vol. 20, pp. 157-164.
  • Saliba, George: 1999 Rethinking the Roots of Modern Science: Arabic Scientific Manuscripts in European Libraries, Occasional Paper, Center for Contemporary Arabic Studies, Georgetown University.
  • Saliba, G. 1992: “The Role of the Astrologer in Medieval Islamic Society,” Bulletin d'Etudes Orientales, vol. 44, pp. 45-68.
  • Saliba, G. 1991: “The Astronomical Tradition of Maragha: A Historical Survey and Prospects for Future Research,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, vol. 1, pp. 67-99.
  • Saliba, G. 1998: The Origin and Development of Arabic Scientific Thought, [Arabic], Balamand University, 1998.
  • Saliba, G. 2007: Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
  • Samsó, Julio, 1992: Las Ciencias de los antiguos en Al-Andalus. Madrid: Mapfre.
  • Sarton, George 1927-48: Introduction to the History of Science. Baltimore: The Williams and Wilkins Company for the Carnegie Institution, 3 vols.: vol. 1: From Homer to Omar Khayyam; vol. 2: From Rabbi Ben Ezra to Roger Bacon; vol. 3: Science and Learning in the Fourteenth Century.
  • Savage-Smith, Emilie 1988: "Gleanings from an Arabist's Workshop: Current Trends in the Study of Medieval Islamic Science and Medicine." Isis, vol. 79, pp. 246-72.
  • Schacht, J. & Bosworth, C.E. 1974: The Legacy of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2nd ed 1979.
  • Selin, Helaine (editor) 1997: Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  • Selin, Helaine (editor) 2000: Astronomy Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Astronomy. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  • Selin, Helaine (editor) 2000. Mathematics Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Mathematics. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  • Sezgin, Fuat 1967-2000: Geschichte des Arabischen Schriftums. 12 vols. Leiden: Brill.
  • Süter, Heinrich 1986: Beiträge zur Geschichte der Mathematik und Astronomie im Islam. Nachdruck seiner Schriften aus den Jahren 1892-1922. 2 vols. Edited by Fuat Sezgin. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschicte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenchaften. Republishing of Süter’s classical works: "Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber und ihre Werke" (1900) et "Nachtrege und Berichtigungen” (1902).
  • [Thabit ibn Qurra] 1997: Thabit ibn Qurra (d. 288-901). Texts and Studies. Collected and reprinted by F. Sezgin et al. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschicte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenchaften.
  • Turkmani, Rim 2011: Arabic Roots of the Scientific Revolution.
  • Vernet, J. & Samsó, J. et al. 1992 : El Legado cientifico andalusi. Madrid: Ministerio de Cultura.
  • Wiedemann, Eilhard 1970: Aufsätze zur Arabischen Wissenschaftsgeschichte. 2 vols. Hildesheim/New York: G. Olms.
  • Wiedemann, Eilhard 1984: Gesammelte Schriften zur arabisch-islamischen Wissenschaftsgeschichte. Gesammelt und bearb. Von Dorothea Girke. 3 vols. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.
  • Woepcke, Franz 1986 : Etudes sur les mathématiques arabo-islamiques. Nachdruck von Schriften aus den Jahren 1842-1874. 2 vols. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschicte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenchaften.
  • Young, M.J.L. & Latham, J.D. & Serejant R.B. 1990: Religion, Learning and Science in the Abbasid Period. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

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  • Ellis, John 1774: An Historical Account of Coffee with an Engraving, and Botanical Description of the Tree: To Which are Added Sundry Papers Relative to Its Culture and Use, as an Article of Diet and of Commerce. Edward Dilly and Charles Dilly, London.
  • Hart-Davies, Adam 2004: What the Past Did for Us, A Brief History of Ancient Inventions. BBC Books.
  • Lindberg, D C 1983: Studies in the History of Medieval Optics. Varorium, London. Lindberg, D C (1996) ‘The Western Reception of Arabic Optics’, in R Rashed (ed.), Encyclopaedia of History of Arabic Science. London: Routledge.
  • Omar, S B 1977: Ibn al-Haytham’s Optics. Bibliotheca Islamica, Chicago.
  • Ree, Hans 1999: The Human Comedy of Chess. Russell Enterprises. 

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  • Al-Ghazali 2000: Dear Beloved Son, translated from Arabic by K. El-Helbawy, Awakening UK, Swansea.
  • Burnett, Charles 2005: Leonard of Pisa (Fibonacci) and Arabic Arithmetic.
  • FSTC Research team 2009: How Islamic Learning Transformed Western Civilization: Review of 'The House of Wisdom'
  • Dodge, B. 1962: Muslim Education in Medieval Times. The Middle East Institute, Washington DC.
  • Haskins, C. H. 1967: Studies in the History of Mediaeval Science. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co.
  • Ihsanoglu, Ekmeleddin 2005: Primary Schools under the Ottomans.
  • Lyons, Jonathan 2009: The House of Wisdom: How the Arabs Transformed Western Civilization. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
  • Nakosteen, M. 1964: History of Islamic Origins of Western Education AD 800–1350. Boulder, Colorado: University of Colorado Press.
  • Pedersen, J. 1984: The Arabic Book, tr. Geoffrey French. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Tibawi, A. 1972: Islamic Education. London: Luzac.
  • Watt, W. M. 1972: The Influence of Islam on Medieval Europe. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Wilds, E. H. 1959: The Foundation of Modern Education. New York: Rinehart. 

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  • Ashtor, E. 1976: A Social and Economic History of the Near East in the Middle Ages, London
  • Bernard, Jacques 1977: “Trade and Finance in the Middle Ages 900-1500”, article 7 in The Fontana Economic History of Europe — The Middle Ages, edited by Carlo Cipolla, Collins/Fontana, London, pp. 274-275.
  • Hill, D. R. 1993: Islamic Science and Engineering. Edinburgh:Edinburgh University Press.
  • Scott, S. P. 1904: History of the Moorish Empire in Europe. 3 vols. London: J B Lippincott Company.
  • Watson, A M 1983: Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Inalcik, Halil 1970: “The Ottoman Economic Mind and Aspects of the Ottoman Economy”, Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East, ed. by M. A. Cook. Oxford, pp. 207-218. 

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  • Forbes, R J 1965: Studies in Ancient Technology. Leiden: Brill, vol. 2.
  • Frothingham, A W 1951: Lustreware of Spain. New York: The Hispanic Society of America.
  • Glick, T 1979: Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Harvey, J 1973: The Master Builders. London: Thames and Hudson.
  • Haskins, C H 1967: Studies in the History of Mediaeval Science. New York: Frederick Ungar.
  • Hobson, R L 1932: A Guide to the Islamic Pottery of the Near East. London: British Museum.
  • Lambert, E 1958 : Art Musulman et Art Chrétien dans la Péninsule Ibérique. Paris : Editions Privat.
  • Lane, A 1947: Early Islamic Pottery. London : Faber and Faber.
  • Male, E 1928 : Art et Artistes du Moyen Age. Paris: Armand Colin.
  • Saoud, R 2001: Introduction to the Islamic City.
  • Wren, Christopher, the Junior 1750: Parentalia: or, Memoirs of the Family of the Wrens, viz. of Mathew Bishop. London: T Osborn and R Dodsley. 


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