Manuscripts

The historical material employed in the book 1001 Inventions was taken from original works of those medieval scholars. The majority of the manuscripts consulted were in Arabic with a few translated into French or English. The book provided a comprehensive list of these manuscripts which we reproduce here together with the place where they are held.

Home Zone
School Zone
Market Zone
Hospital Zone
Town Zone
World Zone
Universe Zone
 


HOME

Coffee

  • Sheikh Abdelkader: ‘Umdat al-Safwa fi hill al-Qahwa’.

Clocks

  • Al-Jazari: ‘Al-Jami’ bayn al’Ilm al-Nafi’ wa sina’at al-hiyal’, or ‘The Book of Knowledge of
    Ingenious Mechanical Devices’.
    A page of this manuscript is kept at the Metrapolitan Museum of Art New York, USA (www.metmuseum.org/Works_of_Art)

Chess

  • Al-Hanbali: ‘Kitab al-namuthaj al-qital fi la’b al-Shatranj’, or ‘Book of the Examples of
    Warfare in the Game of Chess’.
  • Ibn Khaldun: ‘Al-Muqadimah’, or ‘The Introduction’.
    A copy of the manuscript is kept in Durham University Library (www.dur.ac.uk/library)

Cleanliness

  • Al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis): ‘Al-Tasrif li-man ‘ajiza ‘an al-taalif ’ or ‘al-Tasrif ’ or ‘The Method of Medicine’, or ‘The Arrangement of Medicine’.
    A copy was printed in Venice in the 15th Century under the title “The Liber Servitoris of Abulcasis”, and is kept at The Library of National Academy of Medicine, Paris, France (www.academie-medecine.fr/evenements.cfm?langue=fr)
  • Al-Kindi: ‘Kitab Kimiya’ al-‘itr’, or ‘Book of the Chemistry of Perfume and Distillations’.

Trick Devices

  • Banu Musa Brothers: ‘Kitab al-hiyal al-Handasiyah’, or ‘Book of Ingenious Devices’.

Vision and Cameras

  • Ibn al-Haitham (Alhazen): ‘Kitab al-Manazir’, or ‘The Book of Optics’.

Sound System

  • Al-Farabi: ‘Kitab al-musiqi al-Kabir’, or ‘The Great Book of Music’.
    A copy of this manuscripts on music is kept by Columbia University library, USA (www.columbia.edu/acis/textarchive/rare/5.html) as a part of Omar Khayyam’s collection. This manuscript is dated 13th century.

Carpet

  • Ibn Badis: ‘Umdat al-Kuttab wa ‘Uddat Dhawi al-Albab’, or ‘Staff of the Scribes’.

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SCHOOL

School

  • Al-Ghazali: ‘Ihya Ulum al-Din’, or ‘The Revival of Religious Sciences’.
    Three copies of the manuscript are kept in the Schoenberg collection at the Van Pelt Library, University of Pennsylvania, USA (www.library.upenn.edu/vanpelt)

Universities

  • Ibn Khaldun; ‘Al-Muqaddimah’, or ‘The Introduction’.
    A copy of the manuscript is kept in Durham University Library (www.dur.ac.uk/library).
  • Ibn al-Haitham (Alhazen): ‘Kitab al-Manazir’, or ‘The Book of Optics’.
    A 16th century Latin copy of the manuscript entitled “Optic.Thesaurus Alhazeni Arabis libri septem nunc primum editi”is kept at the British Library (www.bl.uk). Another 16th century copy entitled “ Manazir”, is kept at Cambridge University Library, UK (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries)

Libraries

  • Al-Jahiz: ‘Al-Hayawan’, or ‘Book of Animals’.
  • Al-Jahiz: ‘Fen al-Sukut’, or ‘The Art of Keeping One’s Mouth Shut’.
  • Al-Jahiz: ‘Al-Bayan wa’l-tabyin’, or ‘Eloquence and Elucidation’.
    A copy is kept at Yale University Library (www.library.yale.edu/neareast)
  • Al-Muqaddasi: ‘Ahsan at-Taqasim fi Ma’arifat al-Aqalim’, or ‘The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions’.
    A 19th century copy is kept at Glasgow University library, Scotland, UK, and another one at Cambridge University Library.

Mathematics

  • Al-Khwarizmi: ‘Kitab al Mukhtasar fi’l Hisab al-Jabr wal-Muqabala’, or ‘Compendious Book of Calculation by Completion and Balancing’ (Algebra).
    A copy of this book is kept at the Princeton Unviersity Library, New Jersey, USA (library.princeton.edu)
  • Umar al-Khayyam: ‘Maqalah fi al- Jabr wa-al Muqabalah’, or ‘Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra’.
    A copy of this is kept at the Columbia University Library, USA (www.columbia.edu/acis/textarchive/rare/5.html).
  • Umar al-Khayyam: ‘Masail Hisabiyah’, or ‘Problems of Arithmetic’.
  • Al-Samawal: ‘Al-Bahir fi’l-Jabr’, or ‘The Brilliance in Algebra’.
  • Al-Tusi: ‘Shakl al-Qitaa’, or ‘The Transversal Figure’.
  • Al-Farisi: ‘Tanqih’, or ‘Revision’.
  • Al-Farisi has another manuscript called “Nihiyat al-Adrak Fi-Asrar al-Falak”. A copy of this book is kept in the Princeton University Library (library.princeton.edu).
  • Al-Baghdadi: ‘Kitab fi’l-Misaha’, or ‘Book of Surface’.
  • Al-Baghdadi: ‘Al-Takmila fi’l-Hisab’, or ‘Continuation in Arithemtics’.
  • Abu-al-Wafa: ‘Kitab al-Handasa’, or ‘Book of Geometry’.
    A copy of the French translation of the manuscript is found in the University of Cambridge Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries). The translation is entitled “Recherches, sur l’histoire des sciences mathématiques chez les Orientaux, d’après des traités inédits arabes et persans : Analyse et extrait d’un recueil de constructions géométriques par Aboûl Wafâ. (Manuscrit persan no. 169, ancien fonds de la Bibliothèque impériale) / par M. F. Woepcke”. It is dated 19th century.
  • Al-Kashi: ‘Risala al-Muhitiya’, or ‘Treatise on the Circumference’.
  • Al-Biruni: ‘Kitab al-Athar al-Baqiya anil- Qurun al-Khaliya’, or ‘Chronology of Ancient Nations’, and also known as ‘Vestige of the Past’.
    A copy of the manuscript is kept in Edinburgh University Library (www.lib.ed.ac.uk). It is dated 14th century. There is a 19th century English translation of this book. It is kept in the University of Cambridge Library.

Trigonometry

  • Al-Tusi: ‘Shakl Al-Qitaa’, or ‘The Transversal Figure’.
  • Abu al-Wafa: ‘Kitab al Handasa’, or ‘The Book of Applied Geometry’.
    A copy of the French translation of the manuscript is found in the University of Cambridge Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries). The translation is entitled “Recherches, sur l’histoire des sciences mathématiques chez les Orientaux, d’après des traités inédits arabes et persans : Analyse et extrait d’un recueil de constructions géométriques par Aboûl Wafâ. (Manuscrit persan no. 169, ancien fonds de la Bibliothèque impériale) / par M. F. Woepcke”. It is dated 19th century.
  • Al-Biruni: ‘Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi’, or ‘Dedicated to Sultan Masud’.
  • Al-Khwarizmi: ‘Kitab al Mukhtasar fi’l Hisab al-Jabr wal-Muqabala’, or ‘Compendious Book of Calculation by Completion and Balancing’.
    A copy of this book is kept at the Princeton Unviersity Library, New Jersey, USA (library.princeton.edu)

Chemistry

  • Al-Kindi: ‘Kitab al-Taraffuq fi al-‘itr’, or ‘The Book of the Chemistry of Perfume and
    Distillations’.
  • Jabir ibn Hayyan: ‘Al-Khawass al-Kabir’, or ‘Great Book of Chemical Properties’.
  • Jabir ibn Hayyan: ‘Al-Mawazin’, or ‘The Weights and Measures’.Jabir ibn Hayyan: ‘Al-Mizaj’, or ‘The Chemical Combination’.
  • Jabir ibn Hayyan: ‘Al-Asbagh’, or ‘The Dyes’.
  • Jabir ibn Hayyan: ‘Kitab ikhraj ma fi alquwwa ila al-fi’l’, or ‘The Book of Obtaining from what was in the Power to the Action’.
  • Al-Razi: ‘Kitab al Asrar’, or ‘The Book of the Secret of the Secrets’.
    A copy of the manuscript dated between 17th-18th century is kept in the US National Library of Medicine (www.nlm.nih.gov).

Geometry

  • Al-Farabi: ‘Maqala fi Ihsa al-Ulum’, or ‘The Book of the Enumeration of the Sciences’.
  • Abu al-Wafa: ‘Kitab al Handasa’, or ‘The Book of Applied Geometry’.
    A copy of the French translation of the manuscript is found in the University of Cambridge Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries). The translation is entitled “Recherches, sur l’histoire des sciences mathématiques chez les Orientaux, d’après des traités inédits arabes et persans : Analyse et extrait d’un recueil de constructions géométriques par Aboûl Wafâ. (Manuscrit persan no. 169, ancien fonds de la Bibliothèque impériale) / par M. F. Woepcke”. It is dated 19th century.
  • Al-Biruni: ‘Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi’, or ‘Dedicated to Sultan Masud’.

Story Corner

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MARKET

Agricultural Revolution

  • Al-Masudi: ‘Muruj al-dhahab wa Maadin al-Jawhar’, or ‘The Meadows of Gold and Quarries of Jewels’.
  • Ibn Bassal: ‘Kitab al-Filaha’, or ‘Book of Agriculture’.
    A 1955 edition of this manuscript is available at Cambridge University Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries).

Farming Manuals and Ecological Balance

  • Ibn al-Awwam: ‘Kitab al-Filaha,’ or ‘The Book of Agriculture’.
    A 19th century edition of this manuscript is kept by Cambridge University Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries).
  • Anonymous: ‘Kitab al-Tabkh fi-l Maghrib wal Andalus’, or ‘The Cookery Book of Maghreb and
    Andalusia
  • Ibn Bassal: ‘Kitab al-Filaha’, or ‘Book of Agriculture’.
    A 1955 edition of this manuscript is available at Cambridge University Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries).

Essence of Life

  • Al-Karaji, (al-Karkhi): ‘Intibat al-miyah al-khafiyyat’, or ‘Extraction of Underground Waters’.
  • Al-Nuwayri: ‘Nihayat al-Arab fi Funun al-Adab’, or ‘Ends of Arabic Art of Manners’.
  • Al-Maqrizi: ‘Kitab al-Suluk li Ma’rifat Duwal al-Muluk’, or ’Book of Entrance to the Knowledge of the Dynasties of the Kings’.

Raising Water

  • Al-Jazari: ‘Al-Jami’ bayn al’-Ilm al-Nafi’ wa sina’at al-Hiyal’, or ‘The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices’.
    A page of this manuscript is kept at the Metrapolitan Museum of Art New York, USA (www.metmuseum.org/Works_of_Art)
  • Taqi Al-Din: ‘Turuq al-Saniyya fi al-Alat al-Ruhaniyya’, or ‘Sublime Methods of Spiritual Machines’.

Dams

  • Al-Idrisi: ‘Nuzhat al-Mushtaq fi ‘khtirak al-Afaq’, or ‘A Recreation for the Person who Longs to Traverse the Horizons’.
    A copy of the map is found at The Narodna Biblioteka Sv. Sv. Kiril.i Metodii (NBKM), Sherif Khalil Pasha Collection St. Cyril and St.Methodius National Libraries, (www.nationallibrary.bg/)

Wind Mill

  • Al-Masudi: ‘Muruj al-dhahab wa Maadin al-Jawhar’, or ‘The Meadows of Gold and Quarries of Jewels’.

Trade

  • Ibn Hawqal: ‘Kitab al-Masalik wa-al-Mamalik ’, or ‘The Book of the Routes of the Kingdoms’.
    This manuscript consisted of a diary which has been translated and published by Sir William Ouseley in 19th century under the title “The oriental geography of Ebn Haukal, an Arabian traveller of the tenth century”. A copy is kept by Cambridge University Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries).

Paper

  • Ibn Badis: ‘Umdat al-Kuttāb wa ‘Uddat Dhawi al-Albab’, or ‘Staff of the Scribes’.
  • Ibn Hawqal: ‘Kitab al-Masalik wa-al-Mamalik ’, or ‘The Book of the Routes of the Kingdoms’.
    This manuscript consisted of a diary which has been translated and published by Sir William Ouseley in 19th century under the title “The oriental geography of Ebn Haukal, an Arabian traveller of the tenth century”. A copy is kept by Cambridge University Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries).

Pottery

  • Al-Maqrizi: ‘Kitab al-Suluk li Ma’rifat Duwal al-Muluk’, or ’Book of Entrance to the Knowledge of the Dynasties of the Kings’.

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HOSPITAL

Hospital Development

  • Ibn Sina (Avicenna): ‘Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb’, or ‘Code of Laws in Medicine’, famously
    known as ‘Canon’.
    The British museum keeps the manuscript. The US National Library of Medicine (www.nlm.nih.gov) also has a copy written in Iran around 1509. Another copy is kept by Yale University Library, Yale, (www.library.yale.edu/), and a third copy is at Princeton University, New Jersey, USA (library.princeton.edu).
    A Microfilm copy of the Manuscript is available at Juma al-Majid centre, Dubai, UAE.
  • Ibn al-Jubayr: ‘Rihla Ibn Jubayr’, or ‘The Travels’.
    A 19th century copy of the manuscript in English is kept at Yale University Library (www.library.yale.edu/neareast).

Instruments of Perfection

  • Al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis): ‘Al-Tasrif li-man ‘ajiza ‘an al-taalif ’ or ‘al-Tasrif ’ or ‘The Method of Medicine’, or ‘The Arrangement of Medicine’.
    It was printed in Venice in the 15th century under the title “The Liber Servitoris of Abulcasis”. A copy is kept at The Bodleian Library: see A Catalogue of Books Printed in the Fifteenth Century now in the Bodleian Library (Oxford University Press, 2005, vol. 1, p. 52); online at
    http://www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/48836/bod-inc_Volume_1_A.pdf
     
  • Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar): ‘Kitab al-Taisir fi al- Mudawat wa al-Tadbir’, or ‘Book of Simplification concerning Therapeutics and Diet’.

Surgery

  • Al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis): ‘Al-Tasrif li-man ‘ajiza ‘an al-taalif ’ or ‘al-Tasrif ’ or ‘The Method of Medicine’, or ‘The Arrangement of Medicine’.
    It was printed in Venice in the 15th century under the title “The Liber Servitoris of Abulcasis”. A copy is kept at The Bodleian Library: see A Catalogue of Books Printed in the Fifteenth Century now in the Bodleian Library (Oxford University Press, 2005, vol. 1, p. 52); online at
    http://www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/48836/bod-inc_Volume_1_A.pdf
      
  • Al-Razi: ‘Kitab Al-Hawi’, or ‘Continens’.
    A copy of the manuscript dated 1094 is kept by the US National Library of Medicine (www.nlm.nih.gov). It is the oldest manuscript kept by the library and the third oldest Arabic medical manuscript known so far. There are two Latin translations of the manuscripts dating to 16th Century kept in the Vatican City Library (www.vaticanlibrary.va).
  • Ibn al-Quff: ‘Kitab al-’Umda fi l-Jiraha’, or ‘The Foundation’.
    There is a 1937 edition of the manuscript available at the Cambridge University Library. (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries).
  • Ibn Sina (Avicenna): ‘Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb’, or ‘Code of Laws in Medicine’, famously known as ‘Canon’.
    The British museum keeps the manuscript. The US National Library of Medicine (www.nlm.nih.gov) also has a copy written in Iran around 1509. Another copy is kept by Yale University Library, Yale, (www.library.yale.edu), and a third copy is at Princeton University, New Jersey, USA (library.princeton.edu).
    A Microfilm copy of the Manuscript is available at Juma al-Majid centre, Dubai, UAE.

Blood Circulation

  • Ibn Nafis: ‘Sharh Tashrih al-Qanun’, or ‘Commentary on the Anatomy of the Canon of Avicenna’.
    A Microfilm copy of the Manuscript is available at Juma al-Majid centre, Dubai, UAE.
  • Ibn Sina (Avicenna): ‘Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb’, or ‘Code of Laws in Medicine’, famously known as ‘Canon’.
    The British museum keeps the manuscript. The US National Library of Medicine (www.nlm.nih.gov) also has a copy written in Iran around 1509. Another copy is kept by Yale University Library, Yale, (www.library.yale.edu), and a third copy is at Princeton University, New Jersey, USA (library.princeton.edu)
    A Microfilm copy of the Manuscript is available at Juma al-Majid centre, Dubai, UAE.

Ibn Sina’s Bone Fractures

  • Ibn Sina (Avicenna): ‘Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb’, or ‘Code of Laws in Medicine’, famously known as ‘Canon’.
    The British museum keeps the manuscript. The US National Library of Medicine (www.nlm.nih.gov) also has a copy written in Iran around 1509. Another copy is kept by Yale University Library, Yale, (www.library.yale.edu), and a third copy is at Princeton University, New Jersey, USA (library.princeton.edu).
    A Microfilm copy of the Manuscript is available at Juma al-Majid centre, Dubai, UAE.
  • Ibn Sina (Avicenna): ‘Kitab Ai-Shifa’, or ‘The Book of Cure, Healing or Remedy from Ignorance’.
    A copy of this manuscript is kept at The University of Michigan, Near East Division (www.lib.umich.edu/area-programs/near-east-division) and Princeton University, New Jersey, USA (library.princeton.edu ).
  • Ibn Nafis: ‘Sharh Tashrih al-Qanun’, or ‘Commentary on the Anatomy of the Canon of Avicenna’.
    A Microfilm copy of the Manuscript is available at Juma al-Majid centre, Dubai, UAE.

Notebook of the Oculist

  • Al-Mosuli ‘Kitab-ul Muntakhab fi Ilaj al- Ayn’, or ‘Book of Choices in the Treatment of Eye Diseases’.
  • Ibn Isa: ‘Tadhkirat al-Kahhaleen’, or ‘Notebook of the Oculist’.
  • Al-Jurjani: ‘Nur-al-’Ayun’, or ‘The Light of the Eyes’.
  • Al-Ghafiqi: ‘Al-Murshid fil Kuhl’, or ‘The Right Guide in Ophthalmic Drug’.

Herbal Medicine

  • Ibn Samjun: ‘Jami al-adwiya al-Mufrada’, or ‘Collection of Simples, Medicinal Plants and Resulting Medicines’.
  • Al-Dinawari: ‘Kitab al-Nabat’, or ‘A treatise on Plants’.
  • Ibn al-Baytar: ‘Kitab-al-Jami fil Adwiyah al-Mufradah’, or ‘Dictionary of Simple Remedies and Food’.
  • Al-Ghafiqi: ‘Kitab al-adwiya al-Mufrada, or ‘The Book of Simple Drugs’.
  • Al-Ghafiqi: ‘Kitab jami’ al-Mufradat’, known as ‘Materia Medica’.
    A copy of this manuscript is kept by the Bodleian Library, Oxford (www.bodley.ox.ac.uk).

Pharmacy

  • Ibn Sahl, ‘Aqrabadhin’, or ‘Book on Antidotes’.
  • Al-Razi: ‘Kitab al-Mansuri’, or ‘Liber Almansoris’.
    The manuscript was written for the Iranian prince Abu Salih al-Mansur ibn Ishaq in 903. The manuscript provides a diagram of ventricles of cells in the brain. It is kept at The US National library of Medicine (www.nlm.nih.gov)
  • Ibn Sina (Avicenna): ‘Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb’, or ‘Code of Laws in Medicine’, famously known as ‘Canon’.
    The British museum keeps the manuscript. The US National Library of Medicine (www.nlm.nih.gov) also has a copy written in Iran around 1509. Another copy is kept by Yale University Library, Yale, (www.library.yale.edu), and a third copy There is another copy of this book at Princeton University, New Jersey, USA (library.princeton.edu).
  • Ibn Sina (Avicenna): ‘Kitab a-Shifa’, or ‘The Book of Cure, Healing or Remedy from Ignorance’.
    A copy of this manuscript is kept at The University of Michigan, Near East Division (www.lib.umich.edu/area-programs/near-east-division) and Princeton University, New Jersey, USA (library.princeton.edu).
  • Al-Kindi: ‘Aqrabadhin’, or ‘Medical Formulary’.
  • Al Biruni: ‘Kitab al Saydana’, or ‘Pharmacopoeia’, Haran, Iran.
  • Al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis): ‘Al-Tasrif li-man ‘ajiza ‘an al-taalif ’ or ‘al-Tasrif ’ or ‘The Method of Medicine’, or ‘The Arrangement of Medicine’.
    It was printed in Venice in the 15th century under the title “The Liber Servitoris of Abulcasis”. A copy is kept at The Bodleian Library: see A Catalogue of Books Printed in the Fifteenth Century now in the Bodleian Library (Oxford University Press, 2005, vol. 1, p. 52); online at
    http://www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/48836/bod-inc_Volume_1_A.pdf  
  • Ibn al-Muwaffaq: ‘Kitab al-Abniya ‘an haqa’iq al-Adwiya’. ‘The Foundations of the True Properties of Remedies’.
  • Ibn al-Wafid: ‘Kitab al-Dwiyah’, or ‘The Book of Simple Drugs’.
    Ibn al-Baytar: ‘Kitab-al-Jami fil Adwiyah al-Mufradah’, or ‘Dictionary of Simple Remedies and Food’.
  • Saladin of Ascolo: ‘Compendium Aromatariorum’.

European Medicine

  • Al-Majusi: ‘Kitab al-Malaki’, or ‘The Royal Book’, also known as the ‘Pantegni’.
    A copy of the manuscript is kept at Princeton University Library, in New Jersey, USA (library.princeton.edu).
  • Ibn al-Jazzar:’Zad al-Musafir’, or ‘The Guide for the Traveller Going to Distant Countries’, or ‘Traveller’s Provision’, known in Latin as the ‘Viaticum’.
  • Al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis): ‘Al-Tasrif li-man ‘ajiza ‘an al-taalif ’ or ‘al-Tasrif ’ or ‘The Method of Medicine’, or ‘The Arrangement of Medicine’.
    It was printed in Venice in the 15th century under the title “The Liber Servitoris of Abulcasis”. A copy is kept at The Bodleian Library: see A Catalogue of Books Printed in the Fifteenth Century now in the Bodleian Library (Oxford University Press, 2005, vol. 1, p. 52); online at
    http://www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/48836/bod-inc_Volume_1_A.pdf
  • Ibn Al-Thahabi: ‘Kitab al-Ma’a’, or ‘The Book of Water’.
    A copy of the Manuscript is kept In Tlemcen, Algeria.
  • Ibn al-Baytar: ‘Kitab-al-Jami fil Adwiyah al-Mufradah’, or ‘Dictionary of Simple Remedies and Food’.
  • Ibn Nafis (1210-1288), ‘Al-Shamil fi al-Tibb’, or ‘Comprehensive Book on the Art of
    Medicine’.

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TOWN

Bookshop

  • Ibn Nadim: ‘Fihrist al-Ulum, or ‘The Catalogue’ or ‘Index of the Sciences’.
    A 19th century copy is kept by the
    University of
    Michigan Library , Near East Division. (/www.lib.umich.edu/).

Public Baths

  • Ibn Battuta: ‘Al-Rihla’, or ‘The Journey’.
    A 19th century copy of Al Rihla is kept by the
    University of
    Cambridge Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries).
  • Al-Harbi: ‘Al-Hammam wa Adabuh’, or ‘Al-Hammam and its Manners’.

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WORLD

Planet Earth

  • Al-Battani: ‘Al-Zij ’, or ‘De Scientia Stellarum- De Numeris Stellarum et Motibus’.
    A 17th century copy of this Latin translation is kept by the Cambridge University Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries).
  • Ibn Yunus: ‘Al-Zij al-Hakimi’, or ‘The Hakimi Tables’.
  • Khujandi: ‘On the Obliquity of the Ecliptic and the Latitudes of the Cities’.Al-Biruni: ‘Ifrad al-Maqal’, known as ‘Shadows’.
  • Al-Biruni: ‘Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi’, or ‘The Canon of Masudi’.
  • Ibn Hazm: ‘Al-Fasal Fil Milleh’, or ‘Conclusion on the Nation’.
    A copy of this manuscript is available at the Cambridge University Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk).

Surveying

  • Maslama Al-Majriti: ‘Rutbat Al-Hakim’, or ‘The Rank of the Wise’.
    A 17th century copy of the manuscript is kept at Yale University Library (www.library.yale.edu).

Earth Science

  • Al-Biruni: ‘Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi’, or ‘The Canon of Masudi’.
  • Ibn Sina: ‘Kitab al-Shifa’, or ‘The Book of Cure, Healing or Remedy from Ignorance’,
    A copy of this manuscript is kept at The University of Michigan, Near East Division (www.lib.umich.edu/area-programs/near-east-division) and Princeton University, New Jersey, USA (library.princeton.edu).
  • Yahya Bin Masawaih: ‘Kitab al-Jawahir wa-Sifatiha wa-fi ayyi Baladin Hiya, wa-Sifat al-Ghawwasin wa-al-Tujjar’, or ‘Gems and their Properties’.
    There are four Latin translations of Masawaih works at The Debner Library of the History of Science and Technology (www.sil.si.edu/digitalcollections/incunabula). The books have been dated 15th century. They have a general title called “Opera Medicinalica”.
  • Al-Kindi: ‘Al-Jawahir wa ma Shabhaha’, or ‘Gems and the Likes’.
  • Ikhwan Al-Safa, Brothers of Purity: ‘Rasa’il’, or ‘Epistles’.
    An 18th century copy of the manuscript is kept at Princeton University Library, New Jersey, USA (library.princeton.edu).

Natural Phenomena

  • Ibn Hazm: ‘Al-Fasal Fil Milleh’.
    A copy of this manuscript is available at the Cambridge University Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk).
  • Al-Biruni: ‘Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi’, or ‘The Canon of Masudi’.
  • Al-Kindi: ‘Risala’, or ‘Treatise on the Efficient Cause of the Flow and Ebb’.
  • Ibn al-Haitham (Alhazen): ‘Kitab al- Manazir’, or ‘The Book of Optics’, known in Latin as ‘De Aspectibus’ or ’Perspective’.
    A 16th century Latin copy of the manuscript entitled “Optic.Thesaurus Alhazeni Arabis libri septem nunc primum editi”is kept at the British Library (www.bl.uk). Anotehr 16th century copy entitled “ Manazir”, is kept at Cambridge University Library, UK (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries).
  • Kamal al-Din al-Farisi: ‘Tanqih’, or ‘Revision’.
    Al-Farisi has another manuscript called “Nihiyat al-Adrak Fi-Asrar al-Falak”. A copy of this book is kept in the Princeton University Library (library.princeton.edu).

Geography

  • Al-Yaqubi: ‘Kitab al-Buldan’, or ‘The Book of Countries’.
    A copy of the manuscript is kept at Yale University Library (www.library.yale.edu/neareast).
  • Al-Muqaddasi (or al-Maqdisi): ‘Ahsan at-Taqasim fi Ma’arifat al-Aqalim’, or ‘The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions’.
    A 19th century copy is kept at Glasgow University library, Scotland, UK, and another one at Cambridge University Library.
  • Al-Bakri: ‘Kitab al-Masalik wa’l-Mamalik’, or ‘Book of Highways and of Kingdoms’.
    There is a 1946 edited copy of this manuscript kept at Cambridge University Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries).
  • Ibn al-Jubayr, ‘Rihla Ibn Jubayr’, or ‘The Travels of Ibn Jubayr’.
    A 19th century copy of the manuscript in English is kept at Yale University Library (www.library.yale.edu/neareast).
  • Yaqut al-Hamawi: ‘Mu’ajam al-Buldan’, or ‘Dictionary of Countries’.
    A copy of this dictionary is kept at the Cambridge Unversity Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries).
  • Al-Idrisi: ‘Nuzhat al-mushtaq fi ‘khtirak al- Afaq’, or ‘A Recreation for the Person who Longs to Traverse the Horizons’.
    A copy of the map is found at The Narodna Biblioteka Sv. Sv. Kiril.i Metodii (NBKM), Sherif Khalil Pasha Collection St. Cyril and St.Methodius National Libraries, Bulgaria ( www.nationallibrary.bg)
  • Al-ldrisi: ‘Al-Kitab a-Rujari’, or ‘Book of Roger’.
    A copy of the manuscript is found at The Bodleian library, Oxford, UK (www.bodley.ox.ac.uk)
  • Ibn Nadim: ‘Fihrist al-Ulum’, or ‘Index of the Sciences’.
    A 19th century copy is kept by the University of Michigan Library, Near East Division. USA (/www.lib.umich.edu/).

Maps

  • Piri Re’is: ‘Kitab i-Bahriye’, or ‘Book of Sea Lore’, also known as ‘The Book of the Mariner’ and ‘The Naval Handbook’.
  • Al-ldrisi: ‘Al-Kitab a-Rujari’, or ‘Book of Roger’.

Travellers and Explorers

  • Ibn Battuta: ‘Al-Rihla’, or ‘The Journey’.
    A 19th century copy of Al Rihla is kept by the University of Cambridge Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries).
  • Al-Biruni; ‘Hudud al-A’lam’, or ‘The Book of the Demarcation of the Limits of the Areas’.
  • Al-Muqaddasi (or al-Maqdisi): ‘Ahsan at- Taqasim fi Ma’arifat al-Aqalim’, or ‘The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions’.
    A 19th century copy is kept at Glasgow University library, Scotland, UK, and another one at Cambridge University Library
  • Al-Yaqubi: ‘Kitab al-Buldan’, or ‘Book of Countries’.
    A copy of the manuscript is kept at Yale University Library (www.library.yale.edu/neareast).
  • Ibn Khurdadhbih: ‘Al-Masalik wal Mamalik’, or ‘Book of Roads and Provinces’.
    A copy of the manuscript is kept at the Cambridge University Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries).
  • Yaqut al-Hamawi: ‘Mu’ajam al-Buldan’, or ‘Dictionary of Countries’.
    A copy of this dictionary is kept at the Cambridge Unversity Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries).
  • Abu al-Fida: ‘Taqwim al-Buldan’, or ‘The Calendar of Regions’.
    18th century copies of the manuscript are kept at the Bodelian Library, Oxford,(www.bodley.ox.ac.uk).
  • Ibn Rosteh: ‘Kitab al-A’laq an-Nafisa’, or ‘Book of the Precious Ring’.
    There is a French translation of the manuscript entitled “Les atours précieux”. A 1955 copy of it is kept at Cambridge University Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries).
  • Ibn Fadlan: ‘Risala’, or ‘The Letter’.

Navigation

  • Al-Masudi: ‘Muruj al-dhahab wa Maadin al-Jawhar’, or ‘The Meadows of Gold and
    Quarries of Jewels’.
  • Baylak al-Qibjaqi: ‘Kitab Kanz al-Tujjār fi ma’rifat al-Ahjar’, or ‘The Treasure Book of
    Merchants in Travels’.
  • Ibn Muhammed Bukhari: ‘Qissas Mukhtarah’, or ‘Selected Stories’.

Weaponry

  • Hassan Al-Rammah: ‘Kitab Al-Furusiyya wa Al-Manasib Al-Harbiyya’, or ‘The Book of
    Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices’.

Social Science

  • Ibn Khaldun; ‘Al-Muqaddimah’, or ‘The Introduction’.
    A copy of the manuscript is kept in Durham University Library (www.dur.ac.uk/library).

Post and Mail

  • Al-Nuawri: ‘Nihayat al-Arab fi Funun al-Adab’, or ‘The Arab Art of Manners’.

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UNIVERSE

Astronomy

  • Al-Battani: ‘Al-Zij’, or ‘De scientia stellarum- De Numeris Stellarum et Motibus’, or ‘The Sabian Tables’.
    A 17th century copy of this Latin translation is kept by the Cambridge University Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries).
  • Ibn al-Shatir: ‘Kitab Nihayat as-Sul fi Tashih al-Usul ’, or ‘A Final Inquiry Concerning the
    Rectification of Planetary Theory’.
  • Al-Zarqali: ‘Al-Safiha al-Zarqaliya’, or ‘Azafea’.
  • Al-Zarqali: ‘Al-Zij’, or ‘The Toledan Tables’.
  • Ibn Rushd: ‘Tahafut al-Tahafut’, or ‘The Incoherence of the Incoherence’.
  • Ibn Yunus: ‘Al-Zij al-Kabir al-Hakimi, or ‘The Hakemite Tables’.
  • ‘Izz al-Din al-Wafa’i: ‘Al-Nujum al-Zahirat fi amal bi’l rub al-Muqantarat’, or ‘Brilliant
    Stars on Operations with the Almucantar Quadrant.’

Astronomical Instruments

  • Taqi Al-Din:’Turuq al-Saniyya fi al-Alat al- Ruhaniyya’, or ‘Sublime Methods of Spiritual Machines’.
  • Ibn Aflah: ‘Kitab al-Hai’a’, or ‘Book of Cosmology’, or ‘Islah al Majisti’, or ‘Correction of the Almagest of Ptolemy’.
  • Al-Battani: ‘Al-Zij’, or ‘De scientia stellarum- De Numeris Stellarum et Motibus’, or ‘The Sabian Tables’.
    A 17th century copy of this Latin translation is kept by the Cambridge University Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries).
  • Al-Sufi: ‘Suwar al-Kawakib al-Thabit’, or ‘Book of Fixed Stars’.
    A copy is of the manuscript is kept at The Bodleian Library, Oxford, UK (www.bodley.ox.ac.uk). A 17th century Arabic copy is kept at The library of Congress (www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook)
  • Abu Bakr al-Saraj al-Hamawai: ‘Masail Handasya’, or ‘Geometrical Problems’.
  • Abu Bakr al-Saraj al-Hamawai: ‘Risalat al-Amal bi rub al-Muqantarat’, or ‘The Hidden Astrolabe and Hidden Sine Quadrant’.
  • Abu Bakr al-Saraj al-Hamawai: ‘Risala al-Amal bi rub al-Musattar’, or ‘Operations with the Hidden Quadrant’.
  • Ahmed al-Halabi: ‘Bughyat al-Tulab fil’amal bi rub al-astrulab’, or ‘Aims of Pupils on Operations with the Quadrant of Astrolabe’.
  • ‘Izz al-Din al-Wafa’i: ‘Al-Nujum al-Zahirat fi amal bi’l rub al-Muqantarat’, or ‘Brilliant Stars on Operations with the Almucantar Quadrant’.

Astrolabe

  • Masha’Allah: ‘De Scientia Motus Orbis’.
  • Al-Zarqali: ‘Al-Safiha al-Zarqaliya’, or ‘Azafea’.
  • Al-Farghani (Alfraganus): ‘Kitab fi Harakat al-Samawiyah wa Jamawi Ilm al Nujum’, or 'Compendium’.
    A copy of the manuscript is kept by the Princeton Librar
  • Al-Bitruji: ‘Kitab al-Hai’a’, or ‘Book of Cosmology’.
    A 16th century Latin translation of the manuscript is kept at Cambridge University Library (www.lib.cam.ac.uk/University/Libraries).

Armillary Sphere

  • Al-Fazari: ‘Al-Zij’, or ‘Sassanid Astronomical Tables’.
  • Ibn Aflah: ‘Islah al-Majist’, or ‘Correction of the Almagest of Ptolemy’.

Lunar Formations

  • Masha’Allah: ‘De Scientia Motus Orbis’.
  • Masha’Allah: ‘De compositione et utilitate astrolabii’.
    A Latin copy entitled "Scito quod astrolabiuni est nomen” is kept at the British Library, London (www.bl.uk).
  • Al-Sufi: ‘Suwar al-Kawakib al-Thabit’, or ‘Book of Fixed Stars’.
    A copy is of the manuscript is kept at The Bodleian Library, Oxford, UK (www.bodley.ox.ac.uk). A 17th century Arabic copy is kept at The library of Congress www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/
  • Abu Al-Fida: ‘Mukhtasar Tarikh Al-Bashar’, or ‘Concise History of Humans’.
  • Abu al-Fida: ‘Taqwim al-Buldan’, or ‘The Calendar of Regions’.
    18th century copies of the manuscript are kept at the Bodelian Library, Oxford,(www.bodley.ox.ac.uk).
  • Ulugh Beg: ‘Al-Zij’, or ‘Astronomical Tables’.
    A copy of the tables is kept in the Bodelian Library, Oxford University (www.bodley.ox.ac.uk)

Stars

  • Al-Sufi: ‘Suwar al-Kawakib al-Thabit’, or ‘Book of Fixed Stars’.

Flight

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